Japan 50 Week 4
Japan 50 Week 4 JAPAN 50
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Lam on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JAPAN 50 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Caleb Carter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
1 | J a p a n e s e 5 0 Lecture 7 – April 18 th Nichiren 日日 (1222-1282) - Influenced by mappo thought - Practice: exclusive recitation of the title of the Lotus Sutra o Compare with Pure Land movements - Divine nature of Japan Muromachi Facts - Muromachi = Area of Kyoto for the new Bakufu - Ashikaga Shogunate (1336 – 1573) - Gradual Decentralization: o Land rights of absentee landlords greatly reduced o Emergence of Daimyo - Onim War (1467 - 1477): Fall of Ahikaga Shogunate’ th The 14 Century - Weakened Kamakura Shogunate - Kenmu Restoration (1333-1336) o Emperor Go-Daigo Rebellion -> too much power -> exiled - Northern and Southern Courts (1336-1392) Noteworthy Ashikaga Shoguns - 1 : Ashikaga Takauji (1305-1358. R. 1338-1358) rdo Moves Bakufu to Kyoto - 3 : Ashikaga Yoshimitsu o unifies courts in 1392 Ashikaga Power - Unification of court and Bakufu in Kyoto consolidate power - Rice cultivation tripled, epidemics decline - Increase in commercial trade But… - Kamakura Admin of Public Lands lost - Rise of provincial warlords (Shugo and Jito) 2 | J a p a n e s e 5 0 o Shugo: manager of provinces o Jito: collect taxes in provinces Take a portion of tax and enrich the themselves - Full-scale war breaks out in 1467 Status of Women Early history (up through 10 century): - Greater economic autonomy - Female sovereigns (Empress) - Female shamans o Shamans: speak behalf of deities 11 - 16 c.: Gradual Decline: - Confucian values - Buddhist influences o Notions of impurity (menstruation) o Demonization - Patriarchal households (ie structure) via warrior culture Chan/ Son/ Zen 日 Buddhism - “Zen” means “Still the Mind” - Practices: o Emphasis on meditation o Funerals and Ancestral worship - Concept: All living beings have Buddha-nature Spread of Zen - 8 – 9 c.: Emerged in China th th - 10 – 13 c: o Dominant in China o Spreads to Korean Peninsula - Five major Chinese lineages develop - 12 - 13 : 2 lineages brought to Japan (Rinzai and Soto) 3 | J a p a n e s e 5 0 Rinzai Zen - Meditation through Koan practice - Urban development (in the capital) - Supported by Kamakura government, Samurai class, Kyoto court and nobility o Rich and connected o Social contact and involvement - Nominal founder: Eisai (1141-1215) ---> o Based in Kyoto o Accommodated Tendai, Shingon, and Pure Land Practices Soto Zen - Emphasis on silent meditation - Rural: Developed in the mountains and countryside o More secluded o Back to austere lifestyle Zen and Conrinental Interaction - Main avenue for trade and diplomatic relations with Chinese Courts - Embassies to China (1325, 1339, 1397) o Note: Chinese Dynasties Song: Yuan Ming Rinzai Zen of the Five Mountains (Gozan) Five Mountains (5 in Kamakura, 5 in Kyoto) Ten temples (Kanto and Kansai) Temple & Pagoda (each province) 4 | J a p a n e s e 5 0 Ashikaga Yoshimitsu - 3 Ashikaga Shogun (1358-1408 R. 1368-1394) - Kitayama Estate in Hills North of Kyoto o Golden Pavilion (Kinkakuji) 1397 - Funded many of the temples and increased the influence of Buddhism in medieval Japan Midterm Instruction Midterm parts - Identification of Terms - Short Essays 5 | J a p a n e s e 5 0 o How does the Yayoi period differ from the Jomon period? - Text Identification o Provide: Title Author Approximate date or period Short description of text - Slide Identifications o Choose 2 out of 3 images projected and provide a 1-2 sentence description for each - BRING BLUE BOOK!!!!! More things to know: - Heian - How is power organized? - Significant people - Shogun system – how is it developed? Lecture 7 – April 18 th Zen- Influenced Painting and Architecture - Zen temples and gardens o Ryoanji (Temple of the Peaceful Dragon) o Yoshimitsu’s Golden Pavilion o Yoshimasa’s Silver Pavilion - Ink Paintings ( Shiboku-ga) 6 | J a p a n e s e 5 0 Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1436-1490) th - 8 Ashikaga Shogun, R. 1449-1473 - Conflict to succeed him shogunate - Higashiyama Estate in Eastern Kyoto o Silver Pavilion (Ginkakuji, 1474) - Patron o Tea ceremony (Sado) o No theater o Ink Painting Linked Verse (Renga) - Collaborative composition - Traditional Japanese poem (waka) is split into two halves (“Upper” and “Lower”) - Often in hundred verse sequences No (Noh) Theater - Origins Obscure - Elements o Main Actor (Shite) o Secondary Actor (Waki) o Chorus o Musicians - Zeami Motokiyo (1363-1443) o Him and his father started writing these form of scripts - Types of Plays o Genzai-No (Realistic, Historical) o Mugen-No (Dream-like, deity, fantasy) Midieval Shinto - Religious Term: Honju Suijaka 本本本本 (Basis- Trace) o Great Sun Buddha (Mahavairocana) = Sun Goddess (Amaterasu) o Mt. Hiei Gods = appearances of buddhas/bodhisattvas - Landscape becomes mandala o Inner and Outer Ise Shrines = Diamond and Womb Mandalas 7 | J a p a n e s e 5 0 Warring States Japan Military Developments - Warlords (daimyo 本本) o Power completely independent; issued laws in their own lands; formed regional alliances - Militarized Buddhist sects o Ikko sect (Pure Land sect) o Lotus sect (followers of Nichiren) o Enryakuji (Mt. Hiei) – Tendai - Introduction of firearms - Use of foot soldiers - Development of Castle building Socio-economic developments - Shoen system has disappeared - Emperor still exists, but basically powerless - No effective central authority o Regional communes and alliances - Gekokujo 本本本 (those below overthrow those above) - Increased urbanization: Emergence of more Villages and Towns Warring States key dates - 1467-1477 Onin war - 1543 Portuguese reach Tanegashima - 1573 Last Ashikaga shogun driven out of Kyoto - 1592 Invasion of Choson (second invasion in 1597) o A.k.a. The imjin war - 1600 Battle of Sekigahara (last battle) - 1603 Establishment of Tokugawa shogunate
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