Adolescent Psychology Notes 4/18-4/22
Adolescent Psychology Notes 4/18-4/22 Psy 120-020
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Ferree on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 120-020 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Raquel Akillas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
Adolescent Problems Run Away Teens - Victims of dysfunctional families - 1/3 of parents report them as missing - Majority age 15-17 - 75% are females - 70% do not pack --- leave spur of the moment - Majority stay with friends or family - Street kids --- most problems - Police view as low priority - Parents do not want them back - High recidivism rate (repeats crime/ running away) Survival Sex - Food shelter - Quick, fast money Types of Runaways 1. Floaters a. Test idea by threatening parents b. Use to relieve family tension c. If they do run, they return within 48 hours 2. Episodic a. Run after an argument b. Avoid punishment or embarrassment (school problems or pregnancy) c. Usually return within a week 3. Rootless a. Permissive parents who turned controlling b. Spoiled child who wants immediate gratification c. Return, then run away when parents try to discipline again 4. Terrified a. Physical or sexual abuse 5. Anxious a. Became family caretaker b. Parents are alcoholic, drug users, or mentally ill 6. Throwaway a. Deserted by parents because death, drugs, or divorce b. Thrown out of home because of teen homosexuality or teen pregnancy c. Majority of runaways Run Away Programs - Status offense crime - Police can’t force them into a program Street Outreach Programs - Education to prevent sex exploitation and abuse - Help them find a shelter - Crisis intervention National Runaway Safeline - Crisis hotline (online too) - 1(800)RUNAWAY - 3 way conference call with parents if teen wants - Message relay system – leave message if not ready to reconnect - Free Greyhound bus ride home Basic Center Program - Shelter - House teens under age of 18 - 21 days - 24 hour supervision - Food, clothing, and medical care - Counseling - Social workers try to reunite with family Transitional Living - 16 – 21 year olds - Host family - Group home - Maternity group home - Supervised apartment - Teach budgeting, cooking, housekeeping and parenting - Help receive GED - Career counseling Teen and Death Suicide - Who has the highest rate of suicide? Elderly - Highest risk when family is: High in conflict Low in care/ warmth Edwin Shneidman - Suicidologist - Intention Suicide – linked to specific stressor Sub-intentional Suicide – preconscious process (4 types) 1. Death Chaser a. Gamble with death b. Extreme sports 2. Death Hasteners a. Aggravate a physical condition b. Obese person who refuses to change lifestyle c. Diabetic who refuse medication 3. Death Capitulators a. Hypochondriacs b. Anxiety they create may exasperate condition 4. Death Experimenter a. Escape life using drugs and alcohol Predictors - Previous attempts pre-occupation with death in music, art, and writing - Pain - Availability – do they have the items possible? - Knowing someone who committed suicide - Copycat suicides – more common with kids and teens - Drug/alcohol use – most are done under the influence - Giving belongings away What to do - Be direct in non-judgmental way (“Are you thinking about suicide?”) - Stay calm - Don’t react with horror - Listen (teens going through personal fable- no one understands what I’m going through) - Show them they are not alone - Take them seriously - Don’t leave them alone Don’t say: - “You won’t do it” - “Everything will be okay” Involuntary Commitment - In PA it is called a “302” - Can be kept up to 120 hours (5 days) Voluntary Commitment - In PA it is called a “201” - Can leave in 72 hours (3 days) against medical advice Elizabeth Kubler Ross 5 stages of grief - stages are triggered by any loss (break-up, death, divorce) *not in any particular order, may skip/ return to previous stages (like a roller coaster) 1. Denial a. Allow person to collect themselves b. May see: lack of emotion, cleaning behavior, pining (unconscious searching for the person), shrine building (keep everything (a room)the same of the person who was loss) c. Do not try to break denial 2. Anger a. Towards doctors, self, god, deceased b. Do not get caught up in it, Walk away c. Come back when calmer d. Help express anger 3. Bargaining a. With god for: more time, second chance, cure b. Dying sometimes prolong life with bargain with god 4. Depression a. Withdrawal b. Respect their need to be alone c. Don’t try to cheer them up or change topic d. Watch for suicidal behavior 5. Acceptance a. Reinvest in life again How long does grieving take? - No time limit to grieve - May not experience stages in order - May not experience all the stages Depends on: - Anticipated vs. Sudden death - Past experience with death - Nature of relationship (more complicated when you have unfinished business with person, no closure) - Social support - Number of deaths recently experienced (grief overload) Helping Kids 1. Concrete Operational (age 7-12) a. They have logic b. Understand death is permanent c. Curiosity about death d. View death as inevitable and universal e. Let kids see you cry f. Do concrete rituals (Ex: balloons, memorial rocks, plant a tree, scrapbook, leave items by grave 2. Formal Operational (age 12 and up) a. Abstract reasoning b. Understand spiritual world c. May suppress feelings d. Don’t want to appear weak or childish e. Experiencing personal fable f. Give them space g. Emphasize you are there to talk h. Okay to cry or not i. Show your grief too Drug Abuse – Why do people drink/use drugs? Ingesting Drugs Zero to Sixty Rule – the faster the drug reaches the brain, the more addicting it is 1. Fire up a. Smoking b. Drug is burned c. Ingested through lungs/ blood d. Fastest high (seconds) e. Most addictive f. Free basing - impurities are burned off, purest form of drug, produces strongest rush 2. Slamming/ Pining a. Injection b. Drug goes through the blood stream c. Bypasses the liver d. 5-10 seconds to feel the high. e. 2 types: skin popping - drug injected under the skin, mainlining/cranking – drug is injected into a vein 3. Plugging/ Shafting a. Rectal ingestion b. Absorbed by rectal veins into blood stream 4. Shelving a. Vaginal ingestion b. Absorbed by vaginal blood vessels 5. Bumping/ Railing a. Snorting/nasal insufflation b. Powder is inhaled through the nose c. Goes right to the brain, bypassing the blood d. 5 minutes to feel high 6. Dabbing a. A “dab” of the concentrated drug is heated on a metal surface and inhaled b. Usually a nail c. Usually BHO (Butane Hash Oil) 7. Oral Ingestion a. Drug is ingested through stomach/intestine b. Slower delivery to the brain c. Takes several minutes to feel effect 8. Dermal Absorption a. Slowest delivery to brain b. Produces weaker, longer lasting effect Paraphernalia - Vaporizer – produces steam that can be inhaled, electronic - Bullet sniffer/ Bumper – you can snort drug up nose - Hookah/Water pipe – produces steam that can be inhaled, uses charcoal - Bong – portable, creates vapor, use a lighter - Blotter (LSD) – dissolves in mouth, dealers have own designs so you know what you’re getting Psychoactive Drugs - Substance that alters the brain and alters mood or awareness; 4 classifications Depressants – “Downers” – depress the brain 1. Alcohol a. 40 – normally involves beer, drinking 40 ounces b. Cab saw – wine c. Used as rite of passage d. Pledging e. Marriages, baptisms, funerals f. Retirement g. Bar/Bat Mitzvah h. Graduation, new job 2. Opiates (Narcotics) a. Pain killing drugs b. From opium poppy plant c. Opium d. Morphine (called monkey on the street) e. Codeine (called 3 Ts, Miss Emma on the street) f. Heroin (called smack, tar on the street) – most powerful opiate 3. Benzodiazepine (called bennies on the street0 a. Prescription anti-anxiety drugs b. Valium c. Librium d. Xanax – most common today Stimulants – uppers – make you alert and stimulate the brain – form quick dependency 1. Amphetamines (called speed on the street) a. Weight loss diet pills b. Treats asthma and attention disorders c. Methamphetamine – meth, crystal, homemade version of amphetamines, cheaper, quick, strong high 2. Cocaine (called coke and blow on the street) a. Crack – cocaine in its purest form, gives a very strong, quick, intense rush of energy 3. Caffeine (called java or joe on the street) a. Moderate levels improve concentration b. Large amount – cause twitching, nervousness, and rapid heart beat c. At high levels (20+ cups) can produce toxic psychosis (person experiences mania, can become violent) 4. Nicotine a. Cigarettes, cigars b. Vapes c. Moist tobacco d. Snuff – pulverized tobacco, snorted Hallucinogens – distortion of the 5 senses – cause hallucinations – can have good and bad trips 1. Cannabis (Marijuana) – called pot, weed, and Mary Jane on the street a. From hemp plant b. THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) causes the high c. Physically addictive – withdrawal symptoms usually don’t occur until 2-3 weeks after abstinence d. Can be psychological addictive – some people believe they cannot get through a day without pot 2. Synthetic Marijuana – called k2, spice, and bath salts on the street a. Plant material laced with synthetic chemicals b. “Legal marijuana” c. Called plant food and incense to be sold publically d. Causes severe paranoia/ anxiety 3. LSD – called acid on the street a. Usually ingested orally on blotter paper, gelatin, or sugar cubes b. Produces 12 hour high c. Not physically addictive, no physical withdrawal d. Can be psychologically addictive e. Person can have flashback (emotional memories) after abstinence from the drug, they happen suddenly and intensely f. Person feels they are reliving the moment, unable to tell if it is actually happening or just a memory 4. Psilocybin – called magic mushrooms or shrooms on the street a. Fresh or dried mushroom that are either eaten, brewed in tea, or added to food such at chocolate b. 200 different species, each producing a unique experience c. Produces 6 hour high d. Can be psychologically addictive 5. Mescaline (Peyote) a. Comes from the peyote cactus (small spineless cactus), produces buttons which are cut and dried b. Can be chewed or soaked in water and made into a tea c. Produces 12 hour high d. Not physically addictive e. Psychologically addictive 6. PCP – called angel dust, rocket fuel, and embalming fluid on the street a. Has nothing to do with embalming fluid b. Taken in pill form, snorted, or sprayed on herbs such as mint and oregano c. Has synthetic drug that produces a feeling of dissociation (a type of hallucination that distorts sight and sound) d. The person feels detached, similar to an out of body experience e. Produces very aggressive, violent behavior f. Not physically addictive g. Can be psychologically addictive 7. Ketamine – called Special K, Vitamin K and Kit Kat on the street a. Produces a feeling of dissociation, ketamine dissociation called K-hole b. Some report it is similar to a near death spiritual experience c. Medicinally used as a veterinary and pediatric anesthetic d. Used to treat asthma and bipolar disorder e. Not physically addictive f. Can be psychologically addictive 8. MDMA – called ecstasy, hug drug, molly, and E on the street a. Combination of both a stimulant and hallucinogen - depending on how it is cut one can experience more of the stimulant effect or more of hallucinogens b. Stimulant properties can produce involuntary teeth clenching, dehydration, tremors, heart attack, stroke, and seizures c. Can be both physically and psychologically addictive 9. 2C-I – called smiles on the street a. Combination of both a stimulant and a hallucinogen b. Designer drug that’s been linked to many teens deaths c. White powers that is either in pill form, snorted or mixed in chocolate d. Stimulant properties can cause strokes e. Can be both physically and psychologically addictive Inhalants – drugs are huffed (breathing in fumes) – produce a quick high, resulting in a feeling of euphoria, slurred speech, dizziness, and lack of muscle coordination; if enough it inhaled the person can lose consciousness, the high is short lived; can be more scary than other street drugs; average age of us is 12-13 years old - Sudden sniffing death – can happen with one hit, heart beats rapidly then person experiences a heart attack - Asphyxia – when a person cannot breather due to lack of oxygen 1. Volatile Solvents a. Liquids that vaporize into the air b. Include: glue, markers, nail polish, paint thinner, lighter fluid, and gasoline c. Some will put on their sleeve of shirt and sniff their clothes, some will bag (they gather the fumes into a paper or plastic bag to huff it) the chemical 2. Aerosol Sprays a. Pressurized liquids that create a mist of particles in the air b. The person sprays the chemical directly into their nose or mouth c. Include computer duster, hair spray, vegetable oils spray, deodorant spray, and spray paint d. If you see someone with paint on the fingers, skin irritation, and stains around the mouth it is a tail-tail sign of usage 3. Gasses a. Older adolescents tend to do these inhalants b. Gasses c. Some huff propane tanks or gas from tank, or put it in a balloon to huff it d. Whippets– huff whipped cream, don’t eat the whipped cream, they push the nozzle so only the gas comes out, take the nitrous oxide canister inside of the can, put it in a balloon and huff it, can go unconscious The Adolescent User - 90% of addicts started under the age of 18 - Abuse is most common between ages 18-25 - Teens engage in risky/impulsive behaviors Gateway Drugs - Alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana - Teens who try one gateway drug are more likely to try harder drugs - Most hard drug users started with a gateway drug Prefrontal Cortex - Pruning ends age 21-26 - Drugs weaken the brakes (impulse control) - If use during pruning, prefrontal cortex does not mature - Excessive alcohol use shrinks the prefrontal cortex - Make it difficult to understand why using is dangerous - Difficult to focus on recovery Tail-Tail Sign of possible drug usage Day-Night reversal - Stay up all night - Sleep during the day Weight changes - Increased in snacking – gain weight - Suppressed appetite (stimulants) Memory Problems - Black out – can’t remember what happened during alcohol use; can’t recall what happened 2 minutes ago during use; not due to passing out; confabulation – fabricate a story about what happened, fill in blanks of memory - Brownouts – fragmented memory of use, have gaps of memory once you’re sober, can remember if prompted, more common
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