Chapter 15 MGT 250
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Date Created: 04/22/16
Chapter 15 : Interpersonal & Organizational Communication Mastering the Exchange of Information Vocabulary: Active Listening: the process of actively decoding and interpreting verbal messages Communication: the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another Crowdsourcing: obtaining services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, especially the online community Decoding: interpreting and trying to make sense of the message Defensive Communication: either aggressive, attacking, angry communication or passive, withdrawing communication Downward Communication: flows from a higher level to a lower level (or levels) Encoding: translating a message into understandable symbols or language External Communication: flows between people inside and outside the organization Feedback: whereby the receiver expresses his or her reaction to the sender’s message Formal Communication Channels: the chain of command and are recognized as official Grapevine: the unofficial communication system of the informal organization Horizontal Communication: flows within and between work units; its main purpose is coordination Identity Theft: thieves hijack your name and identity and use your good credit rating to get cash or buy things Informal Communicational Channels: develop outside the formal structure and do not follow the chain of command Jargon: a terminology specific to a particular profession or group Linguistic Style: a person’s characteristic speaking patterns Management by Wandering Around: the term used to describe a manager’s literally wandering around his or her organization and talking with people across all lines of authority Media Richness: how well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning Medium: the pathway by which a message travels Message: information shared Multicommunication: represents “the use of technology to participate in several interactions at the same time” Noise: any disturbance that interferes with the transmission of a message Nondefensive Communication: communication that is assertive, direct, and powerful Nonverbal Communication: messages sent outside of the written or spoken word Paraphrasing: when people restate in their words the crux of what they heard or read Privacy: the right of people not to reveal information about themselves Receiver: who the message is intended Security: a system of safeguards for protecting information technology against disasters, system failures, and unauthorized access that result in damage or loss Semantics: the study of the meaning of words Sender: the person wanting to share information Social Media: internetbased and mobile technologies used to generate interactive dialogue with members of a network Chapter 15 : Interpersonal & Organizational Communication Mastering the Exchange of Information Stereotype: oversimplified beliefs about a certain group of people Telepresence Technology: highdefinition videoconference systems that simulate facetoface meetings between users Upward Communication: flows from a lower level to a higher level(s) Chapter 15 : Interpersonal & Organizational Communication Mastering the Exchange of Information 15.1 Interpersonal & Organizational Communication Communication Define: The Transfer of Information & Understanding One study found that 81% of a manager’s time in a typical workday is spent communication Efficient communication means you can transmit your message accurately in a least time How the Communication Process Works Sender Message Receiver Sender [Encoding] Message [Decoding] Receiver Sender [Encoding] Message [Medium] [Decoding] Receiver |___________________________Feedback______________________________| Selecting the Right Medium for Effective Communication All kinds of communication tools are available to managers o Facetoface o Videoconferencing o Telephone o Personal written media (email, text messages, memos, letters) o Impersonal written media (newsletters, fliers, general reports) Matching the Appropriate Medium to the Appropriate Situation Rich medium: best for nonroutine situations & to avoid oversimplification Lean medium: best for routine situations & to avoid overloading Chapter 15 : Interpersonal & Organizational Communication Mastering the Exchange of Information 15.2 How Managers Fit into the Communication Process Formal Communication Channels: Up, Down, Sideways, & Outward 1. Vertical communication: Up & down the Chain of Command a. Downward communication – from top to bottom b. Upward communication – from bottom to top 2. Horizontal Communication: Within & Between Work Units a. Specialization that makes people focus on just their jobs alone b. By rivalry between workers or work units c. Lack of encouragement from management 3. External Communication Informal Communication Channels 1. There are two types of informal channels o The grapevine o Management by wandering around 15.3 Barriers to Communication Chapter 15 : Interpersonal & Organizational Communication Mastering the Exchange of Information 1. Physical Barriers: Sound, Time, Space, & So On 2. Sematic Barriers: When Words Matter 3. Personal Barriers: Individual Attributes that Hinder Communication 2. Nine personal barriers that contribute to miscommunication a. Variable Skills in Communicating Effectively i. Rules for nondefensive communication 1. Define the situation 2. Clarify the person’s position 3. Acknowledge the person’s feelings 4. Bring the focus back to the facts b. Variations in Trustworhiness & Credibility c. Oversized Egos d. Faulty Listening Skills e. Tendency to Judge Others’ Messages f. Inability to Listen with Understanding g. Stereotypes & Prejudices h. Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Communication: How Unwritten & Unspoken Messages May Mislead 1. Eye contact 2. Facial expressions 3. Body movements & gestures 4. Touch 5. Setting 6. Time Chapter 15 : Interpersonal & Organizational Communication Mastering the Exchange of Information Communication Differences between Men & Women 15.4 Communication in the Information Age Digital Communication Technology & Workplace Behavior Multicommunicating is an example of how the worldwide digital communication revolution affects how we act and interact in workplace settings – both positively and negatively The “Always On” Generation Eight norms of the Millennial of Internet Generation Chapter 15 : Interpersonal & Organizational Communication Mastering the Exchange of Information Digital Communication & the New Workplace Videoconferencing Telecommuting Telework The Downside of the Digital Age Security: Guarding against Cyberthreats Privacy: Keeping Things to Yourself Email: Productivity Enhancer or Time Waster? Chapter 15 : Interpersonal & Organizational Communication Mastering the Exchange of Information Smartphones: Use & Abuse Smartphone problems range from merely annoying to unethical and illegal to deadly Some tips for handling smartphones Social Media: Pros & Cons Enhance Business Productivity with Social Media The essence of social media is connectivity. If effective, it allows a business to o Connect with key stakeholders o Connect with varied sources of expertise inside the organization o Connect with varied sources of expertise outside the organization Downside to Social Media Distraction Leaving wrong impression Replacing real conversation Chapter 15 : Interpersonal & Organizational Communication Mastering the Exchange of Information 15.5 Improving Communication Effectiveness Being an Effective Listener What’s Your Listening Style – or Styles? Appreciative style – listening to be amused Empathic style – tuning into the speaker’s emotions Comprehensive style – focusing on the speaker’s logic Discerning style – focusing on the main message Evaluation style – challenging the speaker Concentrate on the Content of the Message Being an Effective Reader Realize the Speed Reading Doesn’t Work Do TopDown Reading – SQ3R Chapter 15 : Interpersonal & Organizational Communication Mastering the Exchange of Information Being an Effective Writer Don’t Show Your Ignorance Understand Your Strategy before You Write 1. Most important to least important 2. Least controversial to most controversial 3. Negative to positive Start with Your Purpose Write Simply, Concisely, & Directly Telegraph Your Writing with a Powerful Layout Highlighting White space Being an Effective Speaker 1. Tell them what you’re going to say 2. Say it 3. Tell them what you said
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