HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) April 18-22, 2016
HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) April 18-22, 2016 HIST 1020
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Ingros on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Donna Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
April 1822, 2016 HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) World History II Dr. Bohanan U.S. CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT The U.S. was a very segregated society. It was only on the social level in the North, but law in the South enforced segregation. o Jim Crow – refers to all laws passed in the 1880s that separated whites and blacks Plessey v. Ferguson – the laws were reinforced under this court case, they ruled under the idea of “separate but equal,” segregation was okay as long as people were seen as “equal” The blacks in the south were exposed to terrorism, and whites acted violently against the blacks outside the law (lynching is the main example of this). o Ku Klux Klan – group of white people would get together and lynch (take the individual out and hanging them out in the country somewhere, often it was preceded by torture, it often drew crowds and became a social event) The Civil Rights Movement sought to end this poor treatment for blacks. o W.E.B. Dubois – black intellectual from Harvard (1903), he was the first black to earn his Ph.D. from Harvard (earned it in history), he was a brilliant historian and was very involved with the growing black consciousness, it was a paramount importance for black people to understand what their history and heritage was and to take pride in being black, he also was very interested in generating this sense of heritage beyond the U.S., he was also a part of teaching the PanAfricans about who they are, he brought together the PanAfrican Congress (who met in Paris): PanAfricanism – refers to Africans wherever they are in the world, he was also an integrationist, he sought integration for blacks into white society o Marcus Garvey – was more radical than Dubois, shared the idea of “promoting black selfesteem” with Dubois, but he said back to Africa, his agenda was for blacks to move back to Africa and for Africa to decolonize and become independent (this was before WWII) Brown v. Board of Education – 1954, a major Supreme Court decision (Earl Warren) was Chief Justice at the time, this said that “Separate but Equal” was th constitutionally wrong, they said it violated the 14 Amendment, this case was not only land marked but was really a huge game changer o NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, this group had been working for years to get the court to hear cases and start the desegregation movement in America Montgomery Bus Boycott – 1955, this was such a big deal because it involved the nonviolence protest that became the hallmark of the Civil Rights Movement April 1822, 2016 (black people moved into white people space and began to undermine the whole idea of segregation), this event caught peoples’ attention o Rosa Parks – whites sat in the front of the bus and blacks sat in the back of the bus, so this lady sat in a white person’s spot and refused to move, she was arrested and people boycotted the bus system for over a year because it refused to budge on the matter, it was coordinated by the NAACP Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. – was a minister at a Baptist church in Montgomery, he also served time in jail, he promoted nonviolent protest (student of Gandhi, likes his ideas and values: take the moral high ground and serve as an example for others), he was also reinforced by Christianity, many of the principle players of the Civil Rights Movement were religious and of the clergy (Christian/Jewish) Eisenhower Administration (Central High School) – 1957 (Little Rock, Arkansas), was going to be the first school desegregated, this was the first example of executive intervention to help the Civil Rights Movement o Orville Faubus – put an end to the desegregation act, brought in soldiers to prevent the 1015 black students from going into the school, there was an incredible standoff between white people and the Arkansas National guard and the couple of black students, in the end these students were allowed to enter the high school SitIns – black people moved into white people space, this was nonviolent but really played with their minds o Woolworth’s – (Greensboro, North Carolina), 4 black college students went to this diner and sat in white space, the workers refused to wait on them, eventually these guys leave and go out and pray, within 2 days there are 80 some people trying to do this, as a result you see more and more sit ins Highlander School – in Tennessee, a school that trained people in forms of civil disobedience and social change, Dr. King had gone to seminars here, people were trained and this school became a major part of the Civil Rights Movement, promoted nonviolent protest, they taught them how to act and protest Integration of Universities – really doesn’t happen until the early 1960s o James Meredith – 1962, black man gained acceptance into Ole’ Miss, white people waited and protested black people entering the school o Vivian Malone – 1963, black woman gained acceptance into University of Alabama, the governor stood in front of her and gave his “segregation today and tomorrow speech” o Harold Franklin – 1964 black man gained acceptance into Auburn University, this was much more peaceful than Ole’ Miss or Bama April 1822, 2016 Fred Shuttlesworth – invited Dr. King to Birmingham to lead the Civil Movement, this man was also a major proponent of the movement, the protest in Birmingham showed the nation how bad things were “Bull” Connor – political figure who worked to shut down black protests in Birmingham, this is when the nation stood up and took note about how bad things were in the south o Birmingham Bombing – 1963, tried to shut down protests and ended up killing 4 little church girls o March on Washington – 1963, many people (200,000) both whites and blacks traveled to Washington D.C. to march on the city and protest segregation, they said integration was part of the moral values of this country, this is where Dr. King gave his famous “I have a Dream” speech Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Lyndon Johnson was president at this time and the Vietnam War was still going on, Johnson came to believe that it was time for major changes in the U.S. in favor of the Civil Rights Movement, he had been in Congress for a long time (he knew everyone and knew how to get what he wanted), he worked hard to get this act through Congress, Birmingham was a huge part of the Civil Rights Movement (it brought much attention), the federal government said that it would not support segregation in public institution (and if segregation persists in places that receive government funding they will lose that money) Voter Registration – voting in the South for black people had historically been very difficult (legally they had the right to vote), but it was difficult to exercise that right because local communities had put in laws that put an obstacle in front of blacks (i.e. Poll Tax – made people pay to vote, Literacy Tests, Fear of getting killed/hurt) o Freedom Summer – 1964, major effort on the part of Civil Rights workers (a lot of university students from up North), they came down and tried to help blacks register to vote so they could exercise their rights o Selma – another place that attracted much attention, people worked here to register blacks to vote as well, a deacon of a church was shot and killed here, so they organized a protest in Selma (march from Selma to Montgomery, AL), they started on a Sunday but the police showed up on the Pettus Bridge (many were clubbed and attacked to try and get the march to end), this became known as “Bloody Sunday,” President Johnson sent troops in to assist the Civil Rights marchers, the march finally took place after White House intervention SNCC – referred to the Student NonViolent Coordinating Committee April 1822, 2016 Voting Rights Act of 1965 – other Civil Rights legislation, it outlawed the Poll Taxes, Literacy Exams, and any other obstacles that stood in the way of blacks voting, this was the apex of the Civil Rights campaign DECOLONIZATION IN AFRICA Effects of the World Wars in Africa – World Wars were hugely important in black consciousness and the want for freedom. Africa played a major role in WWI. The Western allies moved in and occupied the German colonies during WWI, but they lost them anyways with the Treaty of Versailles. African soldiers manned the armies here; they fought on behalf of Britain and France (around a million Africans served during WWI). France brought African troops to France as well. This created an early want for decolonization among a small group of African intellectuals. However, more Africans served in European armies in WWII. Africa also provided an economic contribution to Europe (they got raw materials from them). Exports from the Belgium Congo to Europe went up 14 times (hugely important to the European war effort). Some Africans did make money off of this “help Europe” effort (income levels as a whole went up slightly). On the other hand, the war effort created huge shortages of goods in Africa. There were economic hardships as a result of the war. The political impact of the war on Africa shook it up. Africans wanted freedom after WWII. When Britain demobilized, some soldiers got the right to buy land in Africa for very cheap (GI Bill essentially), but African soldiers didn’t get anything. The Africans became very skilled at modern warfare during WWII. WWII destroyed the myth of white superiority for Africans; when they saw white man were as scared as they were, bled like they did, etc. it showed that the only difference between whites and blacks was their skin. o W.E.B. Dubois – he reached out to Africans and connected their want for freedom with the American Civil Rights Movement (PanAfricanism and “Black Nationalism”) American Civil Rights successes inspired activists in Africa to take action. o Kwame Nkrumah – becomes the face of decolonization, went to school in the U.S., was first educated by European Missionaries in Ghana (Gold Coast), then went to U.S. for college (Penn), he led decolonization in Ghana, in Ghana (after WWII) they faced economic problems, there was a shortage of consumer goods, they thought the British were messing with their economy, thus the Ghana people boycotted European goods (1948), in this context Kwame Nkrumah gains his power and is able to lead the decolonization effort, they wanted to transfer some of the power to the Ghanaians who lived there, the nature of the British regime here was much less brutal than the Belgians in the Congo, so the British began negotiating April 1822, 2016 and designating more important positions for Ghanaians, after WWII Britain no longer challenged things, they just wanted to negotiate, by 1951 the Ghanaians had a number of members in the Cabinet and had gained a majority in the Legislature The Ghanaians gained independence in 1957 with relatively little violence/effort. o Ripple effect – in 1960 Nigeria began to transition out and into independence (same with French West Africa), the French pulled out after a vote for independence (this all happened in a relatively peaceful matter) Belgian Congo – the Congo boundary is so artificial, it is a construct of Europeans, there were 200 different languages in the Congo, in the late 1950s as some of the educated people (like Patrice Lumumba) began to speak up o Lumumba – became the face of decolonization, negotiated with the Belgium government, so in 1959 the Belgium government decided to step out, but violence broke out (early stages of civil war), the differences in the Congo led to this violence and unrest (should it be loose states or unified?), Lumumba said it should be a highly unified nation, but a lot of people didn’t want this, the mineral rich provinces also didn’t want to be unified, so the Belgium government stepped back in and freeelections take place, Lumumba became the Prime Minister, but it doesn’t really change anything (sects of people are trying to break away) this led to the civil war in the Congo, this became a Cold War battlefield (the U.S. and Soviet Union was worried about what was happening in Africa), the U.S. was worried that the Congo and other parts of Africa were becoming puppets of Russia, the Congo became such a battle ground that Lumumba himself was assassinated in response to his policies (the U.S. and the CIA had involvement in his assassination because he was receiving money and aid from Russia): the U.S. was still hung up on the idea of containment of Communism White Settler colonies are ones in which a bunch of white people move into the space, farm the land, and build their homes there. Algeria – this had been a colony of France since 1834 (before the whole wave of New Imperialism), French families had moved and settled here generations ago, these families were known as Pieds Noirs (Black Feet), quite a number of Jewish families have been here for a long time as well, this will become a very violent episode o Dienbienphu – 1954, this is a big deal for French colonies, it encouraged Algerians and other nationalists, the Algerian soldiers who served in Vietnam came home as nationalists and radicalized, their goal was NOT April 1822, 2016 shared power, this is the post 1945world, so it is different, things changed over the course of WWII and news travels so much faster than before o National Liberation Front (FLN) – this was the nationalist party in Algeria, they were talking about independence from day one, they are convinced they can obtain it (but the French are not interested in negotiating at all: they lost Vietnam so they don’t want to lose their colonies), as a result there is a large war War against the French – France vs. Algeria, there was a use of terrorism, this was a war that was very complex, it is a triangular kind of war (Algerians vs. French vs. Pieds Noir [they are aggressively against independence]), this was covered internationally, it becomes a large international issue in 1956 o Suez War – 1956, the FLN was receiving support from other North African states (including Egypt) and the French wanted to stop this, so this was another reason for the Suez War previously discussed, by attacking Egypt France looked really bad internationally The war against the French continued on. The Pieds Noir didn’t want to be kicked out or lose control. Back home in France there is more and more sentiment to get out of the war, but they don’t because the Pieds Noir have a lot of power in France (they have delegates in France government). o Fall of the Fourth Republic – 1960, this war became so bad and so controversial that the government collapsed in France, the Fifth Republic came into control under Charles DeGaulle (he had led the free French during WWII), he says they need to stop and negotiate o So DeGaulle looks over the next two years to negotiate with the Algerians and give them independence, but when he tries to do this there are 4 veteran Pieds Noir who try to take control of things (this was a failed attempt for the Pieds Noir), finally in 1962 the Algerians won their independence South Africa – this was a prolonged independence effort, this was the greatest example of a White Settler colony in Africa, the first white people to move to South Africa was the Dutch (Boer War, etc.), they first established themselves th here in the 17 century, there were other Europeans that went to South Africa as well, then in the late 18 century the British started to move there for the mining industry (Gold, Diamonds, Cecil Rhodes), there is certainly a minority, many spoke Afrikaans (spoke Dutch), the majority of the population was still black/African (70%), there were two other groups as well (Coloreds: white and African (mixed) and Indians: Asians), in 1910 they negotiated a relationship (the British and Africans/Afrikaners) so they let the Afrikaners keep political power but the British could mine the goods as much as they wanted April 1822, 2016 o Apartheid – apartness/separateness, a policy of segregation, it became the official policy of the Afrikaners, recognized white, mixed, Asian, and black, different groups were treated differently in the eyes of the government, if you were a black farmer in South Africa you were dispossessed of your land, they took the lands of the South African and established “home lands” for the different African tribes, people were supposed to be in these “native” home lands (this was about 10% of the land in South Africa), the government took them from the good land and moved them to marginal land, the blacks carried passbooks, they were not citizens but the books had a little bit of history for each person and it had some of your work history, these were used to restrict movement, blacks were paid less than other people, it also said that people couldn’t leave their homeland except for under certain conditions, if you went to the city you could only stay for 10 days, families were separated by this rule, they designated townships that could be occupied by blacks (became slums), apartheid essentially legally prevented the interaction between whites and blacks It was under these conditions that black nationalism grew. The events in the U.S. with the Civil Movement also promoted a lot of nationalism. o African National Congress (ANC) – very prevalent in South Africa, but moved into surrounding nations as well, had a policy of nonviolence, when the apartheid comes into play the ANC ramps things up Nelson Mandela – he would become the face of South African black nationalism, emerges through the ANC, he is a mover and shaker in the ANC, and in 1961 he condoned and organized an act of violence (for which he was arrested), the first 18 years he stayed in prison he was in the worst conditions, he is released from prison in 1993, his deal was that he wasn’t willing to leave jail because he didn’t want to seize his political nationalism, in jail he became a public figure, his position was majority rule (blacks could participate) and there is proportional representation (one person one vote), kind of democratic, he did not want the whites to leave South Africa, he said it was their home too, he said they whites belonged there as much as the blacks did 1970s and 1980s – apartheid is made known internationally and so is Mandela o Soweto Uprising – there was an effort by the government to make the children of Soweto learn to speak Afrikaans, there was an uprising and April 1822, 2016 575 people were killed (5 of which were white, everyone else black), this drew a lot of international attention, this pressure intensifies in the 1980s: people began boycotting goods from South Africa Desmond Tutu – black man, voice of reason who urged non violence, he helped keep the lid on in South Africa Botha – next Afrikaan to come to power, made concessions, he made reforms that made things worse for the blacks, on the 10 year anniversary of the Soweto Uprising people remembered and he shut it down, his resistance to change for blacks forced things to come to head, the movement within South Africa came on fire, he would resign and be replaced De Klerk – came to power after Botha, elected in 1990, he negotiates and implements majority rule, gave blacks a vote, ended apartheid and established majority rule in 1993, then when Mandela got out of jail in 1993 he was elected in 1994 as the new president of South Africa
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