New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

LaSt WeEk

by: Alesa Taylor

LaSt WeEk 3014

Alesa Taylor
GPA 3.57

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

End of renal and Thursday review
Human Physiology
James Stewart
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Human Physiology

Popular in Department

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alesa Taylor on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3014 at Mississippi State University taught by James Stewart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.


Reviews for LaSt WeEk


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/22/16
 Nephrons are the functional units of the kidney o Each nephron consists of a glomerulus, which is a corpuscle of capillaries and a renal tubule. The tubule forms a cup shape around the glomerulus called the glomerular capsule (Bowman’s capsule)  Nephron structures: o Proximal convoluted tubule o Loop of Henle o Distal convoluted tubule o Collecting tubule  Nephrons are associated with 2 sets of capillaries: 1. Glomerular capillary – specialized for filtration which allows the blood pressure in the capillary bed to be very high and forces fluid and solute out of the blood into the glomerular capsule 2. Peritubular capillary – where most of the filtrate is reabsorbed from the renal tubules and returns to the blood  Glomerular filtration: liquid components of the blood are filtered from glomerulus into the glomerular capsule (Bowman’s capsule) keeps proteins, blood cells, and white blood cells from being excreted  3 Layers to the filtration membrane (barrier): 1. Glomerular capillaries - are leaky, fenestrated capillaries; some small solutes can cross glomerular wall like water; blood cells and larger macromolecules cannot be filtered 2. Podocytes – “foot cells” that cover the surface of capillaries, foot processes extend from them creating gaps (filtration slits or slit pores or slit diaphragms and hold back some of the smaller proteins 3. Basal laminae of endothelial cells and podocyte epithelium  Glomerular filtration is a passive process: o Hydrostatic pressures force the fluids and solute through a membrane  Hydrostatic pressure is positive o The glomeruli more efficient filter than other capillary beds o Filtration membrane is a large surface area and very permeable  During filtration it is important to keep the plasma proteins in the plasma o Maintains osmotic (oncotic) pressure  Oncotic pressure is negative o Oncotic pressure will tend to pull water into the circulatory system  If you see blood cells or protein in the urine (protinuria) then there is a problem with the filtration membrane o Common in diabetes and hypertension o Signals kidney damage. If untreated will progress to end stage renal disease and renal failure  The Starling equation is an equation that demonstrates the fluid movement out of the capillary membrane (filtration) as well as back into the capillary (reabsorption) o Jv = Kf([Pc-Pi)]-σ([πc-πi]) o Jv = net fluid movement between compartments o ([Pc-Pi)]-σ([πc-πi]) = net driving forces o Pc is the capillary hydrostatic pressure o Pi is the interstitial hydrostatic pressure o πc is the capillary oncotic pressure o πi is the interstitial oncotic pressure o Kf is the filtration coefficient – a proportionality constant o σ is the reflection coefficient  Basically read as hydrostatic (+)- oncotic (-)= (+)  Reabsorption- Tubular reabsorption is the process by which solutes and water are removed from the tubular fluid and transported back into the blood o It is called reabsorption (and not absorption) because these substances have already been absorbed once in the intestines o Primary method urine formation; most water and salt in primary urine reabsorbed using transport proteins and energy  Each zone of nephrons are transporters for specific solutes  Different regions of the tubule have different transport functions and permeability – diminishing urine volume o Proximal tubule - solute and water reabsorptions occurs o Loop of Henle:  Descending limb is critical for water reabsorption  Ascending limb solutes are recovered o Distal tubule – hormone-mediated regulation of uptake of solutes and water  Reabsorption is a two-step process o Begins with the active or passive extraction of substances from the tubule fluid into the renal interstitium that surrounds the nephrons o Then the transport of these substances from the interstitium into the bloodstream  These transport processes are driven by Starling forces, diffusion, and active transport.  Outward force (oncotic pressure) is defined as positive  Inward force (hydrostatic pressures) is defined as negative o The net filtration or net fluid movement (Jv) o If positive, fluid will tend to leave the capillary (filtration) o If negative, fluid will tend to enter the capillary (reabsorption)  Secretion- Similar to reabsorption; substances such as hydrogen and potassium ions, and organic anions move from the peritubular capillary blood into the tubular lumen filtrate (urine) o Requires active transport  Tubular secretion is an important mechanism for: o Disposing of drugs and drug metabolites o Elliminating undesired substances or end products that have reabsorbed by passive processes (urea and uric acid) o Removing excess K+ o Controlling blood pH  Urine from multiple nephrons is collected in the collecting ducts and drains through the minor and major calyxes until it drains into the renal pelvis  Fluid drains from the renal pelvis into the ureter, which then leads to the urinary bladder.  The bladder stores urine until it is excreted from the body by the micturition reflex.  Micturition is initiated by a nervous reflex which causes the smooth muscle of the bladder walls to contract and then expel the urine  Transport and permeability differences in tubule regions are due to regional anatomical differences in the epithelium  Proximal tubule is mainly composed of cuboidal cells  Loop of Henle: First section is composed of cuboidal cells; Second section (about halfway down) descending loop transitions to squamous cells; Becomes cuboidal again in ascending loop  Distal tubule and collecting duct are composed of specialized epithelial cells- principal cells o Some regions will have no microvilli o Some regions will have intercalated cells with some microvilli  Most reabsorption of solutes and water takes place in proximal tubule o Fluid in the filtrate entering the proximal convoluted tubule is reabsorbed into the peritubule capillaries, including approximately two-thirds of the filtered salt and water and all filtered organic solutes (primarily glucose and amino acids)  The loop of Henle is a U-shaped tube that extends from the proximal tubule. o Consists of a descending limb and ascending limb o Begins in the renal cortex receiving filtrate from the proximal convoluted tubule o Extends into the medulla as the descending limb, and then returns to the cortex as the ascending limb to empty into the distal convoluted tubule o Primary role of the loop of Henle is to concentrate the salt in the interstitial tissue surrounding the loop  Descending limb is permeable to water and less impermeable to salt o Indirectly contributes to the salt concentration of the interstitial tissue surrounding the loop o As the filtrate descends deeper into the hypertonic interstitial tissue surrounding the loop within the renal medulla, water flows freely out of the descending limb by osmosis o Continue to flow out until the tonicity of the filtrate and interstitial tissue surrounding the loop equilibrate  Ascending limb is impermeable to water o Uses a countercurrent exchange mechanism to actively pump sodium out of the filtrate o Filtrate will become hypotonic o Re-generate hypertonic interstitial tissue surrounding the loop create osmotic gradient o Increasing interstitial sodium drive countercurrent exchange  Distal tubule- Has a different structure and function than proximal convoluted tubule o Cells lining the tubule have numerous mitochondria to produce enough energy for active transport to occur o Much of the ion transport taking place in the distal convoluted tubule is regulated by the endocrine system o Parathyroid hormone will reabsorption of more calcium and excretion of more phosphate o Aldosterone will increase sodium in reabsorption and excrete more potassium o Atrial natriuretic peptide causes the distal convoluted tubule to excrete more sodium o Vasopressin will increase water permeability by inducing translocation of aquaporin water channels o Tubule also secretes hydrogen and ammonium to regulate pH  Collecting ducts- Receive urine from several different nephrons and send to renal pelvis o Reabsorb and secrete ions o Main function is to conserve body fluids o Important targets of regulatory changes in ion and water movements, including hormone-responsive pathways  Oxygen equilibrium shift: measures o2 affinity for Hemoglobin and CO2 affinity for Hemoglobn o if there is a decrease ph there are more h+ions causing a right shift and a decrease in o2 affinity if o2 goes down co2 goes up o left shift: increase in ph is less H+ increase in oxygen affinity and decrease in co2 affinity o temperature as a variable: temp increases causing right shift right shift means less o2 more co2 decrease in temp does the opposite o root effect: the "bounce" from low ph to high ph to low ph to high; happens as the blood moves through the Circulatory system low ph is acidic and in the tissue capillaries (systemic capillaries) high ph is basic and at the lungs vice versa for CO2  Chloride shift: how CO2 goes through the blood tissue o Tissues: pick up co2 in the blood picked up in the plasma(dissolved), picked up on the hemoglobin(o2 falls off co2 hops on)(20%), changed into bicarbonate hco3 (7%)(co2 binds with h2o causing carbonic acid which then makes bicarbonate plus a hydrogen ion(the formula))([in a high co2 and high acidic environment co2 gets on and o2 gets off)] hydrogen ion left over binds to hemoglobin the bicarbonate gets shuffled out with the chloride shift there is an exchanger that moves chloride in and bicarbonate out getting the bicarbonate into the blood o Lungs have high oxygen low co2 and a basic environment oxygen affinity is high it wants to get on co2 affinity is low it wants to get off, what is in the plasma diffuses away then an equilibrium gradient is set up the chain reaction starts to go backwards so you have hemoglobin which has co2 bound to it and the co2 comes off because of low affinity and oxygen comes on when oxygen comes on our hydrogen ion that is bound to the hemoglobin comes off and the chloride shift is going where currently chloride is leaving the hemoglobin and bicarbonate is entering it and the bicarbonate forms carbonic acid which then turns into co2 and h2o and the co2 leaves the red blood cell  The whole system is based of ph o2 and co2  ADH antidiuretic hormone  KNOW THE EQUATION  transport in the kidneys o Active- requires energy forcing something against its concentration gradient o Mediated-uses a helper uses a concentration gradient to move another molecule against its concentration gradient o Don't worry about what ions are moving at what part  Know the limbs of the loops of henle: h20 on one side and the other has a solvent  Math questions: o Starling equation says that our hydrostatic pressure minus our oncotic pressure determines whether our solvents are being filtered or being reabsorbed if the number is positive it is being filtered if it is negative it is being reabsorbed because there is a higher oncotic pressure o 40-20=20 which is positive so causes filtration o 20-30=-10 which is negative causing reabsorption if it is being filtered it is going out of the blood into the urine and reabsorbed into the blood  Nephron anatomy: proximal has cuboidal cells which are very important in absorption secretion and making stuff so they are sites or reabsorption and secretion so 65% reabsorption passive distal: almost all hormonal driven, active transport secretion here as well  really know the ascending loop of henle is made of squamous epithelial cells or "one way" cell meaning the loops dip down into the renal pyramid which is going to have an increasing saltiness as the urine moves through the tubule system osmosis will pull out water into the salty environment and the water won't go back in, active nacl- reabsorption o ALCOHOL POISONING KILLS THE SALT WATER EQUILIBRIUM  Ideal gas law o More gas equals more pressure on environment o What gas has the most concentration in our atmosphere? Nitrogen 70% o More nitrogen in the environment causes a HIGHER pressure


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.