PAM 2030, Week 12 Notes
PAM 2030, Week 12 Notes PAM 2030
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eunice on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PAM 2030 at Cornell University taught by Professor Sassler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Population and Public Policy in Political Science at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
PAM 2030 Sassler Spring 2016 April 19, 2016 iclicker: Farley and Squire: residential segregation has generally decreased over the past several decades Segregations o consequences (factors associated with segregation) access to economic opportunities: school, jobs, amenities (libraries, fire stations, parks) poor health (stress, access to health care, exposure to hazards) cultural consequences (peer effects on fertility, crime) o 20 and 21 centuries migration contributes to spatial patterns of living arrangements in receiving cities great migration of blacks, south to north o 1930’s and on: central city Black population proportion increased suburbanization (1950s – 70s) drew whites out of central cities into the surrounding rings international migration (Latin America) diversified the segregation o Two Main Views evenness (most common) related to degree to which a group’s percentage (%) representation in different neighborhoods departs from the group’s % representation in the city’s overall population exposure/isolation (to/)from people not like themselves aspect which relates to the degree to which members of a group are “isolated” because they reside in areas where their group dominates other standard approaches concentration centralization clustering activity space segregation time of day segregation o Data and Measurements data: census data of neighborhoods neighborhoods: defined by census tract data other accounting units: blocks, block groups, distance from city center, places Index of Dissimilarity degree to which two groups are evenly spread among census tracts in a given city D gives % of one group that needs to be moved in order to evenly spread 0 – 100 scale o 30 to 60% is moderate o 60% and higher is ‘high’ National Trends segregation decreased although it’s still pretty high Black Exceptionalism: distance from blacks is higher than distance from other groups segregation is lower in suburbs though it is increasing segregation differs within and between cities o racial balkanization o Explanation Theories socioeconomic differences: SES accounts for distribution expectation: segregation decreases as income increases o whites and blacks of similar class should live in equivalent neighborhoods this is shown to be untrue preferences for living among others like oneself whites tolerate lower proportions comfort levels vary dramatically has more influence than income differences active prejudice: red lining, restrictive covenants, racial steering, access to credit, radically selective annexation public policies designed to increase home ownership o History The Kerner Commission Report (1968): race riots o types of segregation school segregation poor concentration income segregation rich vs. poor kids April 21, 2016 iclicker: if done right, immigration has the potential to arrest economic and population decline in rural towns New Immigrant Destinations in Rural America o Hispanics fuel US growth: comprise largest ethno-racial minority o rural areas in the South tend to be majority minority o change in minority population is happening everywhere o case study: Worthington, MN recently became majority minority o diversity starts “bottom-up”: children Hispanics/minority have higher fertility rates than whites do o Impacts of Uneven Immigration upward mobility poverty rate among Hispanics is much higher social disorganization and white flight aging-in-place and Hispanic population growth generational difference in diversity footloose or putting down roots militarizing the border has prohibited immigrants from leaving o Immigrant Policy should US embrace immigration? amnesty, guest workers, invest in immigrants should US curb immigration? restrictive, who gets it, how does border control work, policy’s function and whom it stops, deportation, how to deal with undocumented immigrants, federal/state government cutting incentives (welfare, healthcare) o DAPA & DACA DAPA: Obama’s 2014 executive action; parents who’ve been in US for 5 years get legal reprieve DACA: those who arrived as children can apply for deferral from deportation similarly: Dream Act o 11 million undocumented immigrants
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