BIOLOGY 120 Week 10 Notes
BIOLOGY 120 Week 10 Notes BIOL120
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Delaluz on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL120 at Towson University taught by Dr.Partain in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Principals of biology in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
Julia Delaluz BIOL 120 Christa Partain Week 10 Notes April 18-22 Effects of Elevation on Temperature Cold air is denser than warm air Temperature decreases as elevation increases Vegetation Influences Temperature Snow/Ice: high reflectance, low solar energy absorption Forest: less solar reflectance than snow, high evaporation Urban: high solar absorption, fossil fuels produce heat & AC vent heat outside Agriculture: more solar absorption, low evaporation Distribution of Rainfall (will ask basic gist of it all, maybe T/F) High temps = high evaporation Air cools evaporation rate decreases, water molecules clump into droplets Air rushes along the surface to replace rising air Cooler, dry air drops to Earth at about 30 degrees north and south o Deserts occur along this latitude Airflow is deflected as a result of earth’s rotation B I O M E S Biome” a type of place with specific characteristics, such as climate, temperature, amount of annual rainfall, anima and plant life As temperature, rainfall and climate change on earth, the distribution of biomes changes There are biomes on the land (terrestrial) and the water (aquatic) Aquatic Biomes Freshwater: (low salt) ponds, lakes, streams and rivers, wetlands Estuary: where salt water meets fresh water Marine: (high salt) intertidal regions, coral reefs, oceans Abyssal Plain: of the ocean Lake Life Zones: more sunlight (surface & shoreline) more photosynthesizers more oxygen more animals (biodiversity) o Less sunlight colder water, less photosynthesis Nutrients in Lakes: o Eutrophication: high nutrient levels from fertilizer runoff lead to “blooms” of algae growth. As the algae die, bacteria feed on them, which depletes oxygen, and can cause fish kills Rivers and Streams Headwater: often a lake, spring, or melting snowpack. Clear, cold, fast-moving; trout (lots of oxygen) Mouth: water slows and becomes cloudy with sediments; fewer plants survive here, so oxygen levels are lower; carp Floodplains & meandering nature of rivers and streams reduced the incidence of floods by allowing rain more time to infiltrate the soil Wetlands Standing water with a variety of submerged and emergent plants High nutrient levels at interface of water and land Comparable to tropical rain forests in number of species Slows water- reduces flood, helps absorb access nutrients (pollution) Estuaries Provides habitat for 75% of commercial fish populations “Nurseries of the sea” Rich in shellfish & salt marshes Vegetation provides a buffer zone that stabilizes a shoreline & prevents erosion Chesapeake Bay “great Shellfish Bay” largest estuary in North America Open Ocean 2/3 of earth’s surface 50% of oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere is generated by single- celled photosynthetic plankton phytoplankton also make up the basis of the food chain generates most of Earth’s freshwater because water molecules evaporating form its surface condense & fall as rain and snow Ocean Life Zones Intertidal Zone: underwater during high tide, above water during low tide o Very harsh environment o Plants and animals must be able to anchor to structures and retain water Open Ocean: heavily exploited o Species diversity declined by 50% in past 50 years Abyssal Plain: deep ocean, dark, cold, pressure is intense o Surprisingly rich in life o Source of energy- hydrogen sulfide from volcanic vents- chemotrophs Coral Reefs Found throughout the tropics in warm and well-lit water Habitat is composed of skeletons of the dominant organism- coral animals Coral feeds on photosynthetic algae they harbor inside their bodies and filter dead organic material from the water Extremely diverse Symbiotic relationship between algae and coral is threatened by humans in these ways: o 1. Acidification because of increased carbon dioxide in atmosphere, causes coral to disintegrate o 2. Increasing Ocean Temperatures algae produces toxin, coral spits out algaecoral bleaching o 3. Sedimentationerosion on land make sediment go out into water, water is too cloudy for photosynthesis algae dies o 4. Eutrophication increase in nutrients (fertilizers) increase in algae o 5. Overfishing too much algae, no fish to keep it down o 6. Tourism ignorant people disrupting ecosystem Tropical Forest High solar irradiance & high water levels Most of the biomass is the tree canopy Sunlight does not penetrate to the forest floor Plants and animals lives in the canopy (epiphytes) (air plant) Plants and animals decompose (breakdown) quickly. The dense vegetation quickly reabsorbs the nutrients that are produced by decomposers, resulting in poor soil Deforestation due to slash/burn agriculture & cattle grazing Temperate Deciduous Forest Seasons: abundant water during the growing seasons to support large trees, but cold winters limit photo synthetics and freezes water in the soil Trees have evolved a deciduous habit Taiga (Boreal Forest) Largest biome on earth Very cold, long, snowy winters Short moist summers Dominant plants are evergreen conifers Photosynthesizes very quickly Only land area where flowering plants are not dominant vegetation type Large mammals and great diversity of summer resident birds Grassland Precipitation is too limited too support woody plants/trees Dominated by grasses Maintained by: o Grazing animals that eats the tops of plants o Animals have evolved: Mutualism with fiber digesting bacteria Specialized chamber in their digestive system (rumen) for grass o Periodic fires o Soils excellent for agriculture Savannah Tropical grassland, has scattered individual trees Supports huge herds of grass-eating mammals and their predators Very long dry season (winter) and very wet season (summer) Desert Rainfall is less than 20’’ a year, can be cold Plants and animals adapted to retain and conserve water Succulents: covered in thick wax, protected Annuals: complete entire life cycle in 2-3 weeks during wet season Kidneys of some mammals conserve water and produce urine 4x more concentrated than ours Attractive to humans and highly developed, drawing down water reserves Tundra Permafrost: ice on top of soil o High temps are not sustained long enough to melt all the soils ice o Impedes water drainage and soils above are often boggy and saturated Plants are adapted to wind and freezing temps; grow in mutualistic multispecies “cushions” Animals survive by storing fat and producing extra fur or feathers Some hibernate, other migrate south Threatened by our reliance on fossil fuels Population Ecology Population: a group of individuals of the same species that share the same habitat and interact with each other to the point of being able to interbreed o Population size- number of individuals o Density- number of individuals per area Distribution: where &how the individuals are distributed within the habitat o Uniform, random, clumped (most common) Growth Rate: o Exponential Growth: population starts out slowly and speeds up as the population increases o Resources are not limiting population growth o Logistic Growth: begins as exponential growth when the population is small, but will decreased wit time as the population encounters resource limitations Carrying Capacity Number of individuals of a certain species an area can support Population growth is limited by… o Resources, climate, competition Fluctuate/oscillate around carrying capacity, temperature, weather, environmental resistance Population may level out at K, producing S shaped curve May oscillate around K K-Selected Species: o Population size by carrying capacity (K) o Density dependent o Relatively stable o Organisms: larger, long lived, produce fewer offspring, provide greater care from offspring r-Selected Species: o Limited by reproductive rate o Density independent o Relatively unstable o Organisms: smaller, short-lived, produce many offspring, provide no care for offspring Life span, when death will occur, length between generations differ Vulnerability of K vs. r Selected Species o K- Panda- limited by only eats bamboo, temperature, can’t migrate, small pop- more vulnerable for extinction o r- fly- adapts, large pop, can live anywhere, eats anything Demographic Transition transition from high birth/death rates to low birth/death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system big changes in fertility- children number going down in many countries Earth’s Carrying Capacity ecological footprint in US is about 9.7 hectares per person my footprint.org planet has capacity of 1.8 hectares per person sustainability issue not about too many people, about way we live Community Ecology Community: a group of populations of plants and animals in a given place, the habitat Community Ecology: concerns diversity of life on earth. Includes: o Diversity: species richness & relative abundance o Interaction with in the community for resources o Trophic Structure: food chain/web Producer (autotroph) consumer (heterotroph) primary (herbivores), secondary (carnivores), omnivores and detrivores Community Structure o Niche: a specie’s functional role within it’s habitat. This is the sum of activities and relationships in which a species engages to secure and use the resources necessary for its survival and reproduction o Keystone Species: a species with a dominant role in shaping the community structure Ex: remove wolves- elk population increases- plant growth impacted- river bank erosion- negatively effects aquatic life, increases flooding, nutrient loss from soil, eutrophication where river ends Types of Biodiversity: o Species diversity (richness) o Geographic diversity (evenness) Species Diversity & Community Stability o A community’s ability to resist adverse environmental conditions increases with species richness o Long-term stability of communities may thus depend on the biodiversity of their many interrelating species o Rivet hypothesis Biodiversity and its Threats o Habitat destruction o Invasive species o Climate change o Hunting
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