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PSYC 1000 - Week 14 Notes

by: HaleyG

PSYC 1000 - Week 14 Notes Psyc 1000-04

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychlogy > Psyc 1000-04 > PSYC 1000 Week 14 Notes
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About this Document

Lecture and textbook notes
Introductory Psychology
Bethany Rollins
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 04/22/16
PSYC 1000 Week 14 Notes ­ April 18­22 Drugs for psychological disorders ­ Mood Stabilizers ­ For bipolar disorder ­ Lithium: salt, influences neurotransmitters; decreases frequency of manic and depressive phases of bipolar disorder (slightly more helpful for mania) ­ Anticonvulsants (mania) plus antidepressants (depressive) ­ Anxiolytics ­ Tranquilizers, anti­anxiety drugs ­ Produce drowsiness, relaxation ­ Benzodiazepines ­ Xanax, Valium, Librium ­ GABA agonists ­ Addictive ­ Antidepressants also have an anxiolytic effect CHAPTER 13 Social Psychology: how we think about, influence, and relate to one another ­ How situations and social factors influence our behavior and thinking ­ Social thinking ­ Making attributions: influences about the causes of behavior ­ Disposition/internal attributions ­ Behavior is caused by personality ­ Situational/external attributions ­ Behavior is caused by circumstances ­ Fundamental attribution error: overestimating dispositional factors and  underestimating situational factors when judging the behavior of others ­ We're more aware of situational influences on our own behavior ­ Found in every culture ­ More prevalent in western/westernized cultures ­ More likely to commit FAE when we judge negative behavior  ­ Attitudes: feelings that predispose our reactions ­ Affect actions; actions also affect attitudes ­ We seek consistency between what we think and what we do ­ Cognitive dissonance: psychological tension that occurs when behavior  and attitudes don't match ­ We're motivated to reduce cognitive dissonance by changing  attitudes to match actions ­ Festinger and Carlsmith: people paid $1 were more likely to lie  than people paid $20; $20 people experienced less tension because they could justify the  lie; however, $1 people couldn't justify it, so they convinced themselves they actually did find the task interesting; more likely to change their attitude to match their behavior ­ Suggests that working hard to obtain a goal makes the goal more  valuable  ­ Role Absorption: we tend to adopt the attitudes that fit roles that we are  given ­ Stanford Prison Experiment (Zimbardo Prison Study) ­ High influence of situations on behavior ­ Social Influence ­ Conformity: changing beliefs/behaviors to match group due to  unspoken group pressure ­ Asch Conformity Experiments: subject chose line of  obviously wrong length because of peer pressure ­ Conformity increases with unanimous majority, size of  majority, ambiguity of situation, difficulty of task, feelings of insecurity ­ Compliance: agreeing to a request from someone who is not in a  position of authority ­ Direct appeals/asking ­ Indirect methods ­ Foot­in­the­door technique: tendency for people  who agree to a small request to be more likely to agree to a larger related request ­ Door­in­the­face­technique: tendency for people  who have been asked a large unreasonable request to be more likely to agree to a smaller  request ­ Obedience: agreeing to a demand from an authority figure ­ Milgram's obedience studies: 2/3 people gave increasingly intense shocks to a stranger ­ Ethics: debriefing, psychologist follow­ups ­ Obedience today is similar to in Milgram's time ­ We obey because of authority, lack of responsibility, and  the power of the situation ­ De­individuation: behaving in uncharacteristic ways when they  feel anonymous or less accountable  ­ Groupthink: when a group is unable to make a wise decision  because they are unable to realistically compare options due to group dynamics ­ Occurs when there is a focus on group  harmony/consensus ­ More likely to occur when groups are isolated, with a  strong leader, and there is suppression of dissenting views ­ Avoiding groupthink: designate a devil's advocate, allow  anonymous expression of opinions, getting opinions from outsiders ­ Social Relations ­ Stereotypes: beliefs about a group; false assumptions that all  members in a group have the same characteristics ­ Prejudice: unjustified evaluation of people based on group  membership ­ Influences how we interpret others' behaviors ­ More about emotion than stereotypes ­ Serves as a legitimizing ideology; justifies and maintains  inequalities by suggesting some groups are less capable/worthy than others ­ Roots of prejudice ­ Tendency to categorize people for simplicity ­ Illusory/imaginary correlations: behavior of one  person associated with a whole group ­ Confirmation bias: we notice and remember  examples that confirm our beliefs ­ In­group favoritism: tendency to evaluate  members of our own group more favorably (even when groups are random) ­ Learned cultural stereotypes ­ Scapegoating: tendency to blame others when  things go wrong ­ Social inequalities: privileged people will develop  attitudes that justify their own status ­ Just­word phenomenon: belief that people get  what they deserve; associated with blaming the victim ­ Hindsight bias: tendency for outcomes to seem  obvious after they have occurred; associated with blaming the victim ­ Privileged fail to notice their privilege ­ Discrimination: treating people differently because of prejudice ­ Overt attitudes: attitudes we are conscious of having/expressing  ­ Implicit attitudes: have an unconscious influence on us ­ Overt and implicit attitudes don't always match ­ Most Americans think they are not prejudiced ­ Implicit Association Test (IAT): reveals how closely connected  particular concepts are in our minds by how quickly we can associate words/pictures ­ Unconscious, automatic influence; subjects are more likely to  accidentally shoot a black man appearing with a tool compared to a white man ­ Helping behavior ­ The Bystander Effect: tendency for the presence of other people to  inhibit helping ­ Kitty Genovese: murdered and no one helped/called 911 ­ Diffusion of responsibility ­ Factors that influence helping ­ If need for help is clear; if people know each other; if person  seems similar to us; feel­good do­good phenomenon: if we are in a good mood; if we are  not in a hurry; population density; costs and benefits ­ Interpersonal attraction ­ Situational and personal factors ­ Environment ­ Physical proximity: we are more likely to be attracted to  someone if we see him or her regularly ­ Mere­exposure effect: familiarity breeds liking ­ Similarity in attitudes, beliefs, interests, opinions, habits, SES,  background, religion, race, education, intelligence ­ Physical attractiveness ­ Analyzing love ­ Passionate love: intense, sexual, emotional, but temporary ­ Companionate love: deep, intimate, steady attachment ­ Changes over time from passionate to companionate


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