notes from april 22
notes from april 22 GEO 100
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Popular in Geology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by samantha Flavell on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 100 at State University of New York at Oswego taught by Rachel Lee (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at State University of New York at Oswego.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
April 22, 2016 Geo 100800 Prof. Nandini Kar Energy Resources *Energy is the capacity to do work *An energy resource is matter that can: Produce Heat Power Muscles Generate Electricity Move Machinery *In material form, an energy resource is called a fuel Energy stored in chemical bonds fuels life *Many geologic materials are energy resources Energy: Renewable and NonRenewable *Some energy sources are renewable, others are not *Some renewable energy sources are solar, wind or water based. Their use does not tend to reduce their future supply *The main nonrenewable energy sources are those that come from combustion of natural fuels. The fossil fuels are a good example of fuels not renewable in the lifetime of humankind. **Fossil Fuels: Organic material (hydrocarbon) trapped in rocks, ultimately derived from photosynthesis** Conversion of Energy *Fossil fuels have energy that derives ultimately from photosynthesis of green plants. Sources of Energy *Energy from fossil fuels Oil, natural gas, and coal are derived from living organisms These materials have energy stored in HC bonds *Created by photosynthesis; is solar energy from the past *Thus, oil, gas and coal represent “fossilized sunshine” Development of Coal *Fossil Fuels ultimately begin as carbonbased (organic) material at the Earth’s surface. When this material is buried and heated, hydrocarbon molecules begin a transformation *Coalification entails compaction, devolatization (loss of water, etc.) and heating, which transforms raw plant material into rock that can burn somewhat efficiently. *coal has a number of different grades, depending on the degree of maturation. Higher grades are harder and give off more energy per mass burned. *Peat Lignite Bituminous Anthracite Development of Oil and Gas *Petroleum oil and natural gas are hydrocarbons like coal, but they started from different material *Oil begins as kerogen, derived from the decay of Plankton and algae, dominantly in shallow marine environments *burial=heating=liquid petroleum distilled from source rock* *Oil and natural gas ae mobile and have low density, so they percolate upward through permeable rocks until reaching a point where they are ‘trapped’ Formation of Coal V. Oil *Heating from burial is essential to the formation of all the fossil fuels, although the starting material may differ What is Natural Gas? *Natural Gas is cleaner burning and more plentiful than crude oil but currently more difficult to extract and transport *Natural gas is commonly burned off at the source, because it is not considered worth extracting **natural gas is not gasoline** *Gasoline is a petroleum distillate a substance we chemically produce from crude oil during the refining process. Most gasoline is a compound octane (C8H18) What we do with Oil th *19 Century: Most crude oil used for kerosene (lighting) th *20 Century: (With rise of the automobile and airplane) Asphalt and gasoline come into heavy use *later 20 Century: chemists develop “plastics” very complex solid hydrocarbons with various useful physical properties *Hydrocarbons in order of increasing size: 1) Natural Gas 2) Gas Condensates (propane and butane) 3) Gasoline 4) Kerosene’s (Jet fuel) 5) Diesels (#1, 2 or 4 fuel oil) 6) Heavy Crudes (lubricating oils) 7) Asphalts (also greases, paraffin’s) 8) “Plastics” (polyethylene, nylon etc.) Hydrocarbon Systems *Creation of an oil or gas reserve requires 4 features *A source rock Usually an organicrich shale *A migration pathway Fractures and/ or bedding porosity *A reservoir rock Permeable, or can be fractured *A trap *These features must develop in a specific order *Reservoir rocks and hydrocarbon migration *Reservoir rocks store and transmit oil and gas *Porosity: open space in the rock that stores fluid *Permeability: Ease of fluid movement through pore space *Low: small well yields *High: Large well yields *Reservoir rocks and hydrocarbon migration Oil and gas migrate upward from source Migration is facilitated by porosity, fractures, permeability, pressure gradients, density and buoyancy differences *Reservoir fluid is layered: gas overlies oil, oil overlies water *Reservoirs can leak to form an oil seep at the surface *Traps and Seals Oil and gas reserves are found in traps Seal: a low permeability Rock that prevents upward migration Trap: reservoir and seal Rock system that contains and retains oil and gas *Traps and seals Anticline trap: structural arch trap for oil or gas within a permeable bed, such as sandstone *Salt Dome trap: Salt rises and bends nearby rocks up forming traps *Fault Trap: Displacement juxtaposes rocks with varying permeability *Stratigraphic Trap: Depositional features (such as a sand “pinchout” between shale layers) create traps
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