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notes from april 22

by: samantha Flavell

notes from april 22 GEO 100

samantha Flavell
SUNY Oswego
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Chapter 26
Physical Geology
Rachel Lee (P)
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by samantha Flavell on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 100 at State University of New York at Oswego taught by Rachel Lee (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at State University of New York at Oswego.


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Date Created: 04/22/16
April 22, 2016 Geo 100­800 Prof. Nandini Kar Energy Resources *Energy is the capacity to do work  *An energy resource is matter that can: ­Produce Heat ­Power Muscles ­Generate Electricity ­Move Machinery *In material form, an energy resource is called a fuel ­Energy stored in chemical bonds fuels life *Many geologic materials are energy resources Energy: Renewable and Non­Renewable *Some energy sources are renewable, others are not *Some renewable energy sources are solar, wind or water based. Their use does not tend to  reduce their future supply *The main non­renewable energy sources are those that come from combustion of natural fuels.  The fossil fuels are a good example of fuels not renewable in the lifetime of humankind. **Fossil Fuels: Organic material (hydrocarbon) trapped in rocks, ultimately derived from  photosynthesis** Conversion of Energy *Fossil fuels have energy that derives ultimately from photosynthesis of green plants. Sources of Energy *Energy from fossil fuels ­Oil, natural gas, and coal are derived from living organisms ­These materials have energy stored in H­C bonds *Created by photosynthesis; is solar energy from the past *Thus, oil, gas and coal represent “fossilized sunshine” Development of Coal *Fossil Fuels ultimately begin as carbon­based (organic) material at the Earth’s surface. When  this material is buried and heated, hydrocarbon molecules begin a transformation *Coalification entails compaction, devolatization (loss of water, etc.) and heating, which  transforms raw plant material into rock that can burn somewhat efficiently. *coal has a number of different grades, depending on the degree of maturation. Higher grades are harder and give off more energy per mass burned. *Peat  Lignite Bituminous Anthracite Development of Oil and Gas *Petroleum oil and natural gas are hydrocarbons like coal, but they started from different  material *Oil begins as kerogen, derived from the decay of Plankton and algae, dominantly in shallow  marine environments *burial=heating=liquid petroleum distilled from source rock* *Oil and natural gas ae mobile and have low density, so they percolate upward through  permeable rocks until reaching a point where they are ‘trapped’ Formation of Coal V. Oil *Heating from burial is essential to the formation of all the fossil fuels, although the starting  material may differ What is Natural Gas? *Natural Gas is cleaner burning and more plentiful than crude oil but currently more difficult to  extract and transport *Natural gas is commonly burned off at the source, because it is not considered worth extracting **natural gas is not gasoline** *Gasoline is a petroleum distillate­ a substance we chemically produce from crude oil during the  refining process. Most gasoline is a compound octane (C8H18) What we do with Oil th *19  Century: Most crude oil used for kerosene (lighting) th *20  Century: (With rise of the automobile and airplane) Asphalt and gasoline come into heavy  use *later 20  Century: chemists develop “plastics” very complex solid hydrocarbons with various  useful physical properties *Hydrocarbons in order of increasing size: 1) Natural Gas 2) Gas Condensates (propane and butane) 3) Gasoline 4) Kerosene’s (Jet fuel)  5) Diesels (#1, 2 or 4 fuel oil) 6) Heavy Crudes (lubricating oils) 7) Asphalts (also greases, paraffin’s) 8) “Plastics” (polyethylene, nylon etc.) Hydrocarbon Systems *Creation of an oil or gas reserve requires 4 features *A source rock ­Usually an organic­rich shale *A migration pathway ­Fractures and/ or bedding porosity *A reservoir rock ­Permeable, or can be fractured *A trap *These features must develop in a specific order *Reservoir rocks and hydrocarbon migration  *Reservoir rocks store and transmit oil and gas *Porosity: open space in the rock that stores fluid *Permeability: Ease of fluid movement through pore space *Low: small well yields *High: Large well yields *Reservoir rocks and hydrocarbon migration ­Oil and gas migrate upward from source ­Migration is facilitated by porosity, fractures, permeability, pressure gradients, density  and buoyancy differences *Reservoir fluid is layered: gas overlies oil, oil overlies water *Reservoirs can leak to form an oil seep at the surface *Traps and Seals ­Oil and gas reserves are found in traps  ­Seal: a low permeability ­Rock that prevents ­upward migration ­Trap: reservoir and seal ­Rock system that contains and retains oil and gas *Traps and seals ­Anticline trap: structural arch trap for oil or gas within a permeable bed, such as  sandstone *Salt Dome trap: Salt rises and bends nearby rocks up forming traps *Fault Trap: Displacement juxtaposes rocks with varying permeability *Stratigraphic Trap: Depositional features (such as a sand “pinch­out” between shale layers)  create traps  


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