Plant Science 1024 Test 4 Notes C
Plant Science 1024 Test 4 Notes C AGPS 1024-001
Arkansas Tech University
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AGBU 2063 - 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Geels on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AGPS 1024-001 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Collins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Principles of plant science in Agriculture and Forestry at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
Plant Science 1024 with Dr. Collins Test #4 Material I. Propagation by Specialized roots and stems A. Food storage 1. Bulbs are herbaceous perennials B. Vegetative reproduction 1. Separation and division Runner- above ground, grow horizontally Stolon- below ground, grows horizontal Crown- root stem junction Offset- short thick stem, looks like a rosette Sucker- originates from roots, unproductive Watersprout- originates from larger stems, unproductive 2. Four main specialized structures a. Bulb- specialized underground organ made up of three parts: i. Basal plate- very short crown of stem ii. Bulb scales- leaves iii. Bulb roots - Tunicate/ laminate- dry membrane as outer covering Concentric rings - Non tunicate/ scaly- no covering Dries out faster b. Corm- solid structure with distinct nodes and internodes (lumpy structure) c. Tuber- modified stem d. Tuber’s root II. Grafting A. Budding- type of grafting 1. Almost all fruit trees are budded at a young age 2. Easier and faster than normal grafting a. Can only be done during growing season when the bark is slipping 3. Three types a. T-bud b. Inverted T-bud c. Patch bud B. The joining together of plant parts by using tissue regeneration Achieve physical union to grow as single plant C. Used by the Chinese as early as 1000 B.C. D. Described in detail during the Roman Empire Mentioned in the Bible E. Five main terms: 1. Scion- the bud on top, short piece of detached wood or bud that will make up the upper portion of the plant 2. Rootstock- what is being grafted on, the bottom plant 3. Interstock- between scion and rootstock 4. Cambium- thin tissue between xylem/phloem a. Must be in intimate contact with the scion 5. Callous- scab, living parenchyma cells that form around the wounded cut, healing process F. Requirements for a successful graft: 1. The rootstock and the scion must be compatible a. Closely related (pecan=walnut/plum=peach) 2. Cambium of scion must be in intimate contact with the rootstock cambium 3. Grafting operation must be done when rootstock and scion are in the proper physiological stage a. Scion is usually dormant 4. All cut surfaces need protection 5. Union needs to be staked for support G. Reasons for grafting 1. Getting benefit from rootstock a. Disease resistance, cold resistance, etc. 2. To perpetuate a clone that is not easily reproduced 3. Change the cultivar of and established tree a. Cultivated variety b. Top working i. Female branch onto a make tree (or vice versa)= self-pollination ii. Restimulate production iii. Multiple citrus tree iv. To form special plant growth H. Natural grafting 1. Polarity a. Closest to the crown is the distal b. Farthest from the crown is proximal 2. Roots of two plants will touch I. Grafting incompatibility 1. Two parts put together will not fuse a. Human error b. Species incompatibility III. Layering A. Asexual method in which adventitious roots are caused to be formed on the stem while the stem is still attached to the host plant B. Naturally or man-made C. Ways to stimulate: 1. Cut it 2. Bend it to a ‘V’ 3. Girdle it D. Types of layering: 1. Air layer a. Girdle on the bark- totally remove bark b. Scrape to remove cambium c. Mold soil around exposed area d. 1-2 months later cut off the top for new plant 2. Mound layer a. Cut plants down b. Cover with dirt c. Continue to recover as the plant grows d. After dirt comes off, plant has roots 3. Simple layer a. Vinery plants 4. Compound layer a. Keep going on the simple layer 5. Tip layering a. Stays below the ground Complex Layering 1. Simple Layering Tip Layering