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JSIS 202 Week 4 Notes

by: Rachel Pollard

JSIS 202 Week 4 Notes JSIS 202

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Here are the notes from lecture this week.
Cultural Interactions in an Interdependent World
Professor James Wellman
Class Notes
International Studies
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Pollard on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JSIS 202 at University of Washington taught by Professor James Wellman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Cultural Interactions in an Interdependent World in Art at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 04/22/16
Marx: The Utopian Critique Monday, April 18, 2016 11:25 AM Argument: Marx sought utopia - lecture on why and how • Marx, one of the three great 19th century masters of suspicion o Friedrich Nietzsche - in philosophy o Sigmund Freud - in psychology o Karl Marx - in economics One of the Great masters in Social Science • Max Weber - Verstehen- structure and superstructure continually interact • Emile Durkheim - sociology as group relations - creates idea of civil religions, both secular and religious • Karl Marx - on structure and superstructure - revolution in thought - structure produces superstructure o Structure is what produces superstructure o This produces our culture • Religion is a form of alienation Where did he begin? • Ludwig von Feuerbach (1804-1872): Young Hegelians: o "Man - this is the mystery of religion - projects his being into objectivity, and then again makes himself an object to this projected image of himself thus converted into a subject. God is the highest subjectivity of man abstracted from himself." o Essence of alienation o Species being Marx on the highest critique • 1846 (with Engels) wrote Communist Manifesto, working class revolution - encourages by French Revolution of 1848. • Movement toward historical materialism - world changed not by ideas but b y physical, material practice - working toward a truly revolutionary proletariat movement • 1850: he writes the Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, discussion of 1848 French Revolution • Class struggle and the dictatorship of the proletariat - the Panic of 1857 - economic crisis - hopes the beginning of change • By 1857 - he had accumulated over 800 pages of notes and short essays on capital, landed property, wage labor, the state, and foreign trade and the world market; this work did not appear in print until 1939… Is Marx a Failure or a Success? Historical Dialectics Follow Inner Contradictions • Dialectical materialism or historical materialism - views history dialectical: o Material realm moves history through inner contradictions o Small scale reform is not enough, only large change to economic system bring real change o Marx deeply influenced by Engel's The Condition of the Working Class in England , 1844 - class conflict as the historical dialectic of real change. Humans as Actual Sensuous Objects • Despotism of capital - calls for the transformation of human nature - what must change is the relation between material objects. • Humans: both potential and real selves - human nature (species being), exists as a function of their human labor. • Marx argues against Hegel: o "The fact that man is a corporeal, actual, sentient, objective being with natural capacities mean that he has actual, sensuous objects for his nature as objects of his life-expression, or that he can only express his life in actual sensuous o bjects." Alienation and Commodity Fetishism • Capitalism mediates social relationships of production through commodities, produced by labor • To give up ownership of one's own labor - one's capacity to transform the world - is equivalent to being alienated fr om one's own nature; it is a core spiritual loss - to give up one's species being. • Marx described this loss as commodity fetishism… commodities, appear to have a life and movement of their own. Why Do Some Groups Hold Ideas Against their own Interests? • Commodity fetishes, example of false consciousness - related to ideology - one is alienated from the true self - species being. • Ideology - ideas that reflect the interests of a particular class - most often used by upper classes to control lower classes. • Upper classes produce ideas, given to lower classes, explanation for why this class holds ideas against their interests. Religious Suffering Reveals Alienation under Capitalist Modes of Production Marx on Evolution of Revolution • Marx's evolutionary model of history says that human history begins with free, productive and creative work that was over time coerced and dehumanized, a trend most apparent under capitalism. • Means of production (land, resources) to produce goods AND relations of production - the social relations people enter to use the means of production. • Inevitable mismatch between structure and superstructure: o Modes of productions and species -being ends in alienation and eventual revolution. Capitalism and Its Inherent Instability • Capitalism, Marx argues is two sided: o Industrializing and productive, but exploitive of nature and human beings - products become alien from workers. o For Marx, ownership are "vampires sucking worker's blood," a system doomed to fail, because relation of owners and w orkers. o Capitalism, unstable doomed to crises, cycle of growth and collapse. Out of Contradictions Comes Communism • Marx believed that if the proletariat seizes the means of production - creating social relations that would benefit all equally, abolishing exploiting class, and introduce a system less vulnerable to cyclical crises. • Capitalism will end through the organized actions of an international working class. Proletariat Rise • "Dictatorship of the proletariat" o A period where the working class holds political power and forcibly socializes the means of production - o Soviet Union and Stalin's workers paradise o Mao's Cultural Revolution White World, Red World Wednesday, April 20, 2016 11:28 AM What Makes US Human Thursday 8pm at Kane 130 • "The mode of production of material life determines the social, political and intellectual life process in general.." • "For as soon as the distribution of labor comes into being ,each man has a particular exclusive sphere of activity, which is forced upon him and from w hich he cannot escape. He is a hunter, a fisherman, a shepherd, or a critical…" • Marx would argue that the system creates a social construct that you are the chooser. • Capitalist systems need consumers. • Create more productivity so people will buy more stuff. Indian Movement • 1890-1960s Vanishing Peoples • Systematic genocide and breaking of all treaties; WA state, broke 6 treaties, made between 1854-1855. • 1960s protests in Canada, US; taking of Alcatraz; Fort Lawton; • AIM: American Indian Movement, militant Amer ican Indian civil rights organization, founded in Minneapolis, Minn. o It was very active in Chicago. o Later, Russell Means became a prominent spokesman for the group. • 1990: WA state tribe-state compact, mutual recognition, one of the most progressive western states for Indians, in the nation. Custer Died for Your Sins, 1969 • Manifesto on Indian Freedom o Leave Indian ritual life alone o Indians must make their freedom, not be given it by whites o White "helpfulness" has been genocidal o Sociologists and anthropologists of Indian life have been exploiters and demons. o Black Elk Speaks: universalizing of spirituality -mistake • Marx was trying to create a species - being through Communism, so that people again feel who they were and be who they were. Universal • Daloria is saying that there's a way in which there's a kind of powerful cross -tribalism is against what he believes. The only way humans can survive and flourish is in their own tribes. • Marx thought is Enlightenment thought. Misunderstanding Indian Life • Why not join the Black Civil Rights Movement? o It was the last great movement for the goals of the Christian religion. • We should seek to nurture cross -tribalism (Daloria is fighting against it) o If Nazis were to found guilty for oppression, what about those i n the US who kept blacks down for song long - even after their service in WWII? o MLK Jr. Argued, that there is no solution to domestic problem unless addressed to the International Problem. - Vietnam War. o If Brotherhood of Man is not achieved, what hope is t here for Indians? o Brotherhood of man, not achievable in a diverse society. • If it's not achievable, then why seek it? Indian Grave Digging, 1970s • William Carlos Williams: o "The land! Don't you feel it? Doesn’t it make you want to go out and lift dead Indians tenderly from their graves - some authenticity." o Unconsiouc, but precisely what whites were doing in 1971 Choosing History over Nature • Albert Camus, French Novelist, Existentialist: o "When nature ceases to be an object of contemplation and admiration, it c an be nothing more than material for an action that aims at transforming it." o What are our real choices? • History or nature? • Time or space? Profound Difference: Chief Luther Standing Bear, Sioux Nation • "The white man does not understand America, He is too f ar removed from its formative processes .The roots of the tree of his life have yet grasped the rock and soil. The white man is still troubled by primitive fears; he still has in his consciousness the perils of this frontier continent…The man from Europe i s still a foreigner and an alien.." • "But in the Indian the spirit of the land is still vested; it will be until other men are able to divine and meet its rhythm. Men must be born and reborn to belong. Their bodies must be formed of the dust of their forefa thers' bones." • How or can the white person become indigenous? How can we sacralize the land? Place vs. Time • Native peoples hold place as sacred • "Very essence of Western European identity involves the assumption that time proceeds in a linear fashion; further it assumes that… the peoples of Western Europe became the guardians of the world...This same ideology sparked the Crusades.. Now against terrorism? End of History • The world is not a global village • An anti cross tribal message Different Notions of the Sacred • Homogeneity vs. heterogeneity • Time vs. space • Belief vs. experiencing what is true • Cross-tribal vs. tribal • Manifest destiny vs. one particular place • Beliefs (transferrable ) vs. experience of specific location • Hope in afterlife vs. the sacred is the village o Monotheisms may hold certain places as sacred but primarily appreciated for their historical significance. Cayuse, refusing to sign the Treaty of Walla Walla Chief Seattle, 1854, loss of his people, the Duwamish - 342m cleanup of the river Neuroscience of time-fullness and time-forgetfulness • "The result of this casual attitude toward history, was of course that history has virtually no place in the religious life of the tribe." o Right brain types: what is happening now is all that is important. Thos e who live into moments of timelessness o Left brain types: those who plan, chronos -types, get it done - one thing after another, result based • Is it possible to live into a new state of consciousness? Fascism Friday, April 22, 2016 11:30 AM Violence, Racial Purity, and Total Devotion to the Nation The Japanese Version • The fundamentals of our National Polity • Children were taught that the emperor of Japan was divine. • Loyalty to the state was paramount. Overcoming the Deficiencies of Modern Capitalism • Problem: Alienation and division results from the harsh competition of market capitalism. o Creation of class conflict • Solution: Reintegrate society by controlling the mar ket, prohibiting class conflict by imposing authority of properly chosen elites, and using loyalty to the nation as a unifying ideology. • They gained popularity because they responded to some real problems. Restoring National Pride and Strength: Purifyin g the Nation • Problem: Foreign ideas and people have polluted our culture and weakened our resolve. • Solution: Purge those ideas and foreign elements that have weakened our great nation. Cleansing will restore us. • Problem: National weakness and corruption. • Solution: Militarize society, impose discipline, prepare for war, purge the nation of traitors who will resist. Ours is a superior culture and race, and it is our right to be powerful. Down with Democracy, the Leader Knows Best • Problem: Democracy is a sha m that brings only conflict and allows money to corrupt politics. Enlightenment ideas about individual rights, freedoms are unnatural and deceptions because they only weaken national solidarity. • Solution: The LEADER and his PARTY (or the EMPEROR and his government) know best and that is what the people rave - strong, clean, devoted leadership. The Conditions that Led to the Rise of Fascism in Europe • Disruptive effects of industrialization - blaming Jews for capitalism. Dis aster of World War I. Economic crises and unemployment in early 1920s, then the Great Depression of the 1930s. Italy 1922. Germany 1933. Spain 1939. • Spread in Europe: Spain (Francisco Franco - allied to Catholic Church), Romania (Iron Guard - highly religious, Romanian Orthodox Church) - Fascist Parties in France, Belgium, Norway, Hungary, Croatia, others who eventually worked with the Germans when they conquered most of Europe in 1939 -1941. Spread Beyond Europe • Fascism much admired, Mussolini then Hitler as heroic saviors of their nations. • East Asia (Japan, Thailand) • Middle East (A model for Arab nationalists.) • Latin America (Argentina most of all. Juan and Evita Peron and the opposition to the Catholic Church). • A bit in the US, but much less. Franklin Ro osevelt as a liberal alternative. The Consequences • Attempts to reshape the culture to glorify the leader and the nation • Elite rule - accommodation with the rich elite. • Dictatorship - no free press, speech, or elections. o They promise to be clean. o When there's no rule of law and no appeal, corruption appears in the regime. • Curtailment of human rights, repression, murder. • Militarization and when possible, aggression. • Increasing corruption. The Revival • With the death of communism, is this again the ideology of future authoritarian revolutions?


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