General Chemistry Chapter 10
General Chemistry Chapter 10 Chem 1314
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Walker on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1314 at Oklahoma State University taught by Dr. Jimmie Weaver in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
Chapter 10 Molecular shape and VSEPR Theory Molecule properties are directly related to their shapes VSEPR Theory the molecular geometry can be determined by the repulsion of the electron groups of the atom o An electron group is a single, double or triple bond. Five basic shapes- linear (2 e- groups), trigonal planar(3 e- groups), tetrahedral(4 e- groups), trigonal bipyramidal (5 e- groups) and octahedral (6 e- groups) When there are lone pairs of electrons the electron geometry is the same but the molecular geometry is different o Lone pairs will be positioned to minimize repulsions with other lone pairs and bonding pairs Polarity Polarity depends on the geometry o If the dipole bonds are canceling each other then it will be nonpolar o If they are not cancelling each other out then it is polar http://dwb5.unl.edu/CHEM/DoChem/DoChemGIFs/DC039-2.gif Highly symmetric molecules have a tendency to be nonpolar while asymmetric tend to be polar Polarity effects molecule properties greatly Valence bond theory The chemical bond is an overlapping of atomic orbitals that are half full Overlapping orbitals can be standard (1s or 2p) or they can be hybrids, mathematical combinations of the standard orbitals in the atom, o sp, sp , sp 3 a molecules geometry is determined by the geometry of the overlapping orbitals use the correct molecular geometry determined by the VSEPR theory and then determine the correct hybridization two bond types sigma (σ) or pi (π) o a sigma bond the orbital overlap is in the region between two bonding electrons, can rotate freely o a pi bond is above and below the region directly between the bonding electrons (overlapping of p orbitals), has restricted rotation Molecular Orbital Theory simplest molecular orbits are linear combinations of atomic orbitals or LCAO’s, which are weighted averages of atomic orbitals of different atoms inside a molecule when two orbitals combine and form molecular orbitals, one will be of lower energy (bonding orbital) and one will be of higher energy (antibonding orbital) fill the same way as atomic orbitals stability of a molecule and strength of the bond depends on the number of bonding orbitals compared to antibonding Pearson Mastering Chemistry
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