Biological Basis of Psychology
Biological Basis of Psychology
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Date Created: 04/15/14
PSYCH 3 THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF PSYCHOLOGY Spring Quarter 2014 41 Reviewed Syllabus 43 Review Brief History of Biopsychology From Ancient Egyptians to Today Brief Intro to Neuroanatomy Basic structures and systems 1300 BC 0 Ancient Egyptians 9 mummification 0 Preserved important structures such as the liver lungs stomach and intestines 0 They left their heart because the hear was thought to be the seed of intelligence and cognition things we now associate with the brain 0 The brain was disregarded unimportant to them 300 BC 0 The heart of Aristotle 0 Heart and soul and feeling 0 Aristotle gave the brain some credit 9 believed that the brain was the cooling system 9 cool off the blood to circulate body and take care of the heart 0 Plato Aristotle39s teacher did believe in the brain however 1400s1500s Leonardo Da Vinci 9 Ventricular System Great scientist and artist Studied brain of the ox He injected hot blast and found uid filled chambers 4 within the brain and houses the cerebral spinal uid He got people to focus on the brain especially these Ventricles 0 People thought this uid in chambers must be where the soul and cognition is 1600s 0 Book On Man 9 Iames Hart 0 Dualism the notion that the mind is subject only to spiritual interactions while the body and brain are subject only to material interactions 15961650 0 Rene Descarte 0 The church believed everything is all spiritual 0 Compromised 9 it may be somewhat spiritual but the brain cannot be the soul itself 0 O O O O O The brain is more of intellect Brain Localization o The concept that specific brain regions are responsible for various types of experience behavior and psychological processes 0 Specific parts of brain damage led to specific impairments 0 Must mean the brain is cognition etc 0 Paul Broca French neurosurgeon 0 He studied patients who had strokes then could not speak speech impairment 0 Left inferior frontal gyrus Broca s area this one region must be involved in the speech process 0 Must be certain spots in the brain that process certain behavior 0 Patient Tan 9 had Broca s aphasia 9 could not find or produce words 9 only word he could speak is Tan 0 Agrigate Theory the whole brain does everything this theory went against brain localization and the studies found by Paul Broca Phineas Gage in 1848 0 Railroad worker 9 had an accident 9 a metal spike pierced through his prefrontal cortex 0 He was alive and his general intelligence seemed alright but under closer examination it was noticed that his personality and organization had changed 0 Found that personality could be a feature of the brain 0 Pre Frontal Area Cortex 9 personality 0 Certain structures within the brain are specialized for particular functions Phrenology Franz Iospeh Gall 9 Phrenology was completely false 0 O O 0 Early 19th century Brain modularity Phrenology the brain could be organized into 35 or more specific functions and that the size of the brain region within an individual would depend on their ability Superior ability in specific functions could be measured by the bumps in the skull the more you use specific functions the more they will grow Mid 180051900s Neuron Doctrine O The hypothesis that the brain is composed of separate cells that are distinct structurally metabolically and functionally Method of staining inject dye and only particular neurons will show the dye Ramon Y Cajal 18521934 used the staining method to prove to everyone that the brain is not all interconnected They may look connected but there are actually little gaps between cells synapses He believed the brain is made up of individualized little cells He used Goulgy s method to prove himself wrong Exponential Growth From Then to Now 0 Now we do not have to wait for someone to die to observe their brain MRIS etc Cognitive Neuroscience 0 fMRI MRI etc 0 You can see specific functions more advanced brain manipulation vision memory etc The Future of Biopsychology 0 Using fMRI to read the minds of individuals 0 Using brain signals to move prosthetic limbs o Optogenetics using light you can stimulate or inhibit way of controlling neurons only practiced on miceanimals so far 0 Using a eat of nanoprobes to measure functional brain activity 0bama s Brain Activity Map Project 0 Fund money to have everyone come together to research the brain dynamical neuroscience 0 Physics engineering psychology etc 0 Bring all these subjects together to find new and solve problems of the brain 0 200 million funded for this type of research Neuroanatomy The Nervous System 0 Central Nervous System I Skull and spinal cord spine and brain 0 Peripheral Nervous System everything else I Somatic I Automatic Navigating the Brain 0 Terms that specify where you are in the brain I Horizontal plane Axial slice cut across the brain horizontally Dorsal upper brain goes up Ventral lower brain goes down Rostral towards the front of the brain aka anterior Caudal towards the back of the brain aka posterior I Sagital plane Cut brain vertically find the corpus colliusum I Coronal plane aka frontal brain sides of the brain Organization of the Adult Human Brain 0 Central Nervous System I Brain Forebrain O o Telencephalon I Isocortex I Basal Ganglia I Limbic system 0 Diencephalon I Thalamus I Hypothalamus Midbrain aka Mesencephalon Hindbrain o Metencephalon I Cerebellum I Pons o Myelencephanol Spinal cord Back of ch 2 has a good chart Basal View of the Brain 0 O Brainstem Midbrain Medulla Pons I Regulates re ex activities that are critical for survival such as heart rate and respiration connects to the spinal cord Cerebellum the little brain Motor coordination and balance Pituitary Gland I Site of hormone secretion Works with the hypothalamus Olfactory Bulb I Receptors for smell Optic Chiasm the point at which the two optic nerves meet goes to your right visual field to be processed 9 goes to the left hemisphere Medial View of the Brain 0 O O Pineal Gland I The source of melatonin release Thalamus I Relay site for sensory processes I First stops at thalamus processed then shipped off to the other specific parts of the brain visual olfactory etc Corpus Callosum I Connects the hemispheres I Bundles of axons axons are part of the neurons that transmit signals to other neurons I Hypothalamus Implicated in hunger thirst temperature regulation reproductive behaviors and aggression 4 F39s food ight fight fuck I Cingulate Gyrus Association cortex involved in decision making monitoring behavior and directing attention Above the corpus callosum Lateral View of the Brain 0 Occipital Lobe I Visual processing 0 Parietal Lobe I Somatosensory spatial attention 0 Temporal Lobe I Auditory processing language comprehension object recognition 0 Frontal Lobe I Motor control reasoning language production inhibitory control working memory Brain Systems 0 Basal Ganglia I Group of structures important for involuntary movement Parkinson39s Disease 0 Depleted of dopamine do not have voluntary control Limbic System 0 Emotion Amygdala 0 Memory Hippocampus
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