NOTES_4.19 - 4.21.pdf
NOTES_4.19 - 4.21.pdf History 1020
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Phillips on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari L Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
NOTES 4.19.16 – 4.21.16 PROFESSOR CASTEEL HIST 1020 ALEX PHILLIPS MIDDLE EASTERN OIL AND POWER OIL - machines and cars dependent on oil - how terrorism is being funded - causing environmental problems o oils spills and global warming BRITISH IN THE MIDDLE EAST - William Knox D’Arcy : D’Arcy Concession o Deal with Persians that if he finds oil he will give 16% of revenue to them o Oil still belongs to him/Britain - Masjed Solsyman: they find oil - APOC: Anglo-Persian Oil Company o WWI breaks out and increases the importance of oil - Abadan Refinery : where APOC makes a lot of $ REZA SHAH - Shah of Iran: he was a strict ruler - Abdicates 1941 b/c Britain and the U.S. were putting pressure on him - Name change: Persia -> Iran (1935) o Anglo-Iranian Oil Company THE SHAH - Reza Shah’s son - Monarchy/constitutional govt. o Prime minister and electoral body elected - Prime Minister: Mohammad Mosaddegh o Didn’t want British imperialism o Boycott on oil -> British say they won’t buy it OPERATION AJAX - overthrow Mosaddegh (Brit and U.S.) o people against him b/c newspapers feature false news o makes people not like him so he loses popularity - 3 years in prison and on house arrest o not harsh enough for British and Americans - Strained U.S. and Iran relationship - Oil is now privatized o U.S. o British Petroleum (BP) - Afterwards the Shah became more of a monarch - On the other hand, he heasde the White Revolution o Literacy increased, education funding increased, right to vote for women OIL OWNERSHIP QUESTION - OPEC: Org. of Petroleum Exporting CO. 1960 - Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela o Geneva, Switzerland = headquarters - After 1949, Middle Eastern nations didn’t formally acknowledge Israel as a nation OIL CRISIS - OPEC wont give oil to those who supported Israel b/c of Yam Kippur War - Price of gas almost doubled AYATOLLAH KHOMEINI - wants to bring religion back to Iran - Shah going against some of teachings of Koran o Put religion back in govt. - Strikes, violent protests (1970’s) o 1979 Revolution breaks out REVOLUTION - Shah leaves - Khomeini comes back from exile - Violence breaks out b/w Shah supporters and Khomeini supporters - Tanks - Khomeini wins national referendum and declares Iran a religious government EFFECTS - reverse westernization o U.S. = satan - Another oil crisis (1979) o Price rose until 2006 b/c lower exports to U.S. IRAN HOSTAGE CRISIS - Iranian students went to embassy in Tehran and took Americans hostage o Would give them back if U.S. would send Shah back to Iran (he had just been allowed to enter the U.S.) MEANWHILE IN IRAQ - Iraq invades Iran b/c oil and religious tension - Iraq-Iran War o Oil becomes a target o 8 years - needed more troops so boys as young as 11 and 12 were enlisted - ended in cease fire 1988 - U.S. supported Sdam Hussein EFFECT ON IRAQ - Hussein got cocky - Killed people who disagreed with him and people who fought in war b/c they didn’t win o U.S. overlooked b/c he wasn’t as bad as Ayatollah - Wanted Kuwait so they invaded b/c Kuwait “stole” oil from Iraq o U.S. supports Kuwait - Operation Desert Storm (U.S. helping Kuwait) - Iraq retaliated by burning oil fields o Oil fire, oil spills PERSIAN GULF WAR: RESULTS - UN gets involved o Limited oil sale, no fly zones implemented o No chemical warfare (nuclear, burning oil, etc.) - U.S. out of “war funk” US IN MIDDLE EAST - Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, etc, wanted the U.S. to stay o Protection o Some thought this made the U.S. look weak which created more resentment WHAT IS TERRORISM - remember the Reign of Terror in France o government by intimidation - examples o Archduke Franz Ferdinand Assassination o Mussolini’s Black Shirts o The Brown Shirts, the SS o Stalin: Great Purges o Boston Tea Party o The ANC (declared terrorists) - Terrorism is a matter of perspective o Could also be someone else’s hero ANC, Boston Tea Party TWO TYPES OF TERRORISM - 1. Domestic o Oklahoma City Bombing 1995 o Sarin Gas Subway incident in Japan 1995 - 2. International o 1972 Munich Olympics (PLO: Palestinian Liberation Organization) WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF TERRORISM? - trying to elicit a response - fear 1979 - Iranian Revolution - Chaos in Afghanistan b/c communist group want to take over1979- 1989 o Afghanistan calls Soviet Union for help o USSR then “invades” Afghanistan o The U.S. needs to fight for containment so they send weapon and money o Mujahedin: what Afghan troops were called: Dukhi is what soviets called them (ghosts) o Many places to hide like caves o Other Arab nations helped to preserve their religion Osama Bin Laden was one of the Afghan Arabs Bin Laden’s family was wealthy and like they U.S., were supplying money to Afghanistan o Afghanistan destroyed when Soviets leave So much damage, they couldn’t pay to rebuild OSAMA - gave $ to Afghanistan to help build support for himself - established Al Qaeda: wants U.S. out of Middle East - wanted to build a giant Islamic State : Religious Extremism WORLD TRADE CENTER BOMBING 1993 - carried out by Ramzi Youssef - loaded bombs into truck and drive into parking deck o reached some lower floors of trade center BOMBINGS IN US EMBASSIES - Kenya and Tanzania - 4,000 injured and 220 were killed POST 9/11 TERRORISM - became synonymous with religion/ region - question of how to defeat terrorism o military tactics? Other?
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