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NOTES_4.19 - 4.21.pdf

by: Alex Phillips

NOTES_4.19 - 4.21.pdf History 1020

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > History 1020 > NOTES_4 19 4 21 pdf
Alex Phillips
GPA 3.6

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Notes from 4.19.16- 4.21.16
World History II
Cari L Casteel
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Phillips on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari L Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/22/16
NOTES 4.19.16 – 4.21.16 PROFESSOR CASTEEL HIST 1020 ALEX PHILLIPS MIDDLE EASTERN OIL AND POWER OIL - machines and cars dependent on oil - how terrorism is being funded - causing environmental problems o oils spills and global warming BRITISH IN THE MIDDLE EAST - William Knox D’Arcy : D’Arcy Concession o Deal with Persians that if he finds oil he will give 16% of revenue to them o Oil still belongs to him/Britain - Masjed Solsyman: they find oil - APOC: Anglo-Persian Oil Company o WWI breaks out and increases the importance of oil - Abadan Refinery : where APOC makes a lot of $ REZA SHAH - Shah of Iran: he was a strict ruler - Abdicates 1941 b/c Britain and the U.S. were putting pressure on him - Name change: Persia -> Iran (1935) o Anglo-Iranian Oil Company THE SHAH - Reza Shah’s son - Monarchy/constitutional govt. o Prime minister and electoral body elected - Prime Minister: Mohammad Mosaddegh o Didn’t want British imperialism o Boycott on oil -> British say they won’t buy it OPERATION AJAX - overthrow Mosaddegh (Brit and U.S.) o people against him b/c newspapers feature false news o makes people not like him so he loses popularity - 3 years in prison and on house arrest o not harsh enough for British and Americans - Strained U.S. and Iran relationship - Oil is now privatized o U.S. o British Petroleum (BP) - Afterwards the Shah became more of a monarch - On the other hand, he heasde the White Revolution o Literacy increased, education funding increased, right to vote for women OIL OWNERSHIP QUESTION - OPEC: Org. of Petroleum Exporting CO. 1960 - Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela o Geneva, Switzerland = headquarters - After 1949, Middle Eastern nations didn’t formally acknowledge Israel as a nation OIL CRISIS - OPEC wont give oil to those who supported Israel b/c of Yam Kippur War - Price of gas almost doubled AYATOLLAH KHOMEINI - wants to bring religion back to Iran - Shah going against some of teachings of Koran o Put religion back in govt. - Strikes, violent protests (1970’s) o 1979 Revolution breaks out REVOLUTION - Shah leaves - Khomeini comes back from exile - Violence breaks out b/w Shah supporters and Khomeini supporters - Tanks - Khomeini wins national referendum and declares Iran a religious government EFFECTS - reverse westernization o U.S. = satan - Another oil crisis (1979) o Price rose until 2006 b/c lower exports to U.S. IRAN HOSTAGE CRISIS - Iranian students went to embassy in Tehran and took Americans hostage o Would give them back if U.S. would send Shah back to Iran (he had just been allowed to enter the U.S.) MEANWHILE IN IRAQ - Iraq invades Iran b/c oil and religious tension - Iraq-Iran War o Oil becomes a target o 8 years - needed more troops so boys as young as 11 and 12 were enlisted - ended in cease fire 1988 - U.S. supported Sdam Hussein EFFECT ON IRAQ - Hussein got cocky - Killed people who disagreed with him and people who fought in war b/c they didn’t win o U.S. overlooked b/c he wasn’t as bad as Ayatollah - Wanted Kuwait so they invaded b/c Kuwait “stole” oil from Iraq o U.S. supports Kuwait - Operation Desert Storm (U.S. helping Kuwait) - Iraq retaliated by burning oil fields o Oil fire, oil spills PERSIAN GULF WAR: RESULTS - UN gets involved o Limited oil sale, no fly zones implemented o No chemical warfare (nuclear, burning oil, etc.) - U.S. out of “war funk” US IN MIDDLE EAST - Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, etc, wanted the U.S. to stay o Protection o Some thought this made the U.S. look weak which created more resentment WHAT IS TERRORISM - remember the Reign of Terror in France o government by intimidation - examples o Archduke Franz Ferdinand Assassination o Mussolini’s Black Shirts o The Brown Shirts, the SS o Stalin: Great Purges o Boston Tea Party o The ANC (declared terrorists) - Terrorism is a matter of perspective o Could also be someone else’s hero  ANC, Boston Tea Party TWO TYPES OF TERRORISM - 1. Domestic o Oklahoma City Bombing 1995 o Sarin Gas Subway incident in Japan 1995 - 2. International o 1972 Munich Olympics (PLO: Palestinian Liberation Organization) WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF TERRORISM? - trying to elicit a response - fear 1979 - Iranian Revolution - Chaos in Afghanistan b/c communist group want to take over1979- 1989 o Afghanistan calls Soviet Union for help o USSR then “invades” Afghanistan o The U.S. needs to fight for containment so they send weapon and money o Mujahedin: what Afghan troops were called: Dukhi is what soviets called them (ghosts) o Many places to hide like caves o Other Arab nations helped to preserve their religion  Osama Bin Laden was one of the Afghan Arabs  Bin Laden’s family was wealthy and like they U.S., were supplying money to Afghanistan o Afghanistan destroyed when Soviets leave  So much damage, they couldn’t pay to rebuild OSAMA - gave $ to Afghanistan to help build support for himself - established Al Qaeda: wants U.S. out of Middle East - wanted to build a giant Islamic State : Religious Extremism WORLD TRADE CENTER BOMBING 1993 - carried out by Ramzi Youssef - loaded bombs into truck and drive into parking deck o reached some lower floors of trade center BOMBINGS IN US EMBASSIES - Kenya and Tanzania - 4,000 injured and 220 were killed POST 9/11 TERRORISM - became synonymous with religion/ region - question of how to defeat terrorism o military tactics? Other?


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