Mexico Article & Lecture Notes
Mexico Article & Lecture Notes Pols 328
Popular in Politics of Developing Nations
Popular in Political Science
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Kienle on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pols 328 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Professor Arceneaux in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Politics of Developing Nations in Political Science at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
Mexico - Article and Lecture Tuesday, April 19, 2016 Mexico Mexico's young democracy is facing vast issues when it comes to development of the state o Relationship with the United States has also hindered their growth Extremely interdependent on the United States economy o Civil / internal war is making democratization difficult Drug wars and gangs battle the government for territories to carry out criminal activities Recent Development o Mexico no longer the land of peasants 80 percent of Mexicans love in cities, creating a large middle-income class 60 percent are employed in the service sector, making up most of the GDP Only 12 percent of national land cultivated Mexico offers a wide array of terrain from mountains to lowlands One of the world's largest economies o Mexico is rich in natural resources 3rd largest producer of oil in the world Natural gas, other minerals o Population growth is 1.11 percent annually, with mestizos making up most of the population Most citizens are Roman Catholics and live concentrated in cities Mexico City Half of 111 million people in Mexico are considered poor 15 percent of population lives in extreme poverty Causes widespread immigration to the United States o Large unemployment and inequality gap plaque Mexico Causes shortages in education, health care, housing, and more Education and literacy in Mexico greatly suffers because of this Most children over 15 average 8 years of schooling Historical Mexico o Mexican revolution was one of the first independence revolutions in history together with France and Russia Produced a highly centralized state that valued corporatist practices, although authoritarian in regime design Placed Mexico on the national political map o Mexico also important due to its national ethnic inheritance from the Incas, Aztecs, the Mayas, and other indigenous people that produced very important technological, architectural, scientific, agricultural, and religious ideas impact on the global stage remarkable Mexico on a Global Scale o With the violence and crime going on in Mexico, it has drawn considerable national attention onto its state This has caused an intertwining with the United States beyond regular trade and investment Migration to the US Fierce border protection and protection of national interests Impact of media and culture from the US onto Mexico and the impact of culture from migratory populations on the US have brought these nations very close together o Mexico provides a huge market and labor source from migratory populations Mexico and the United States have a bilateral relationship and agreement through NAFTA and other binding agreements Very important for both countries o Foreign policies Most concerned with protecting its sovereignty due to its history of invasion Remain a noninterventionist country skeptical of international "ideas" and agreements through the UN and other overseas institutions Continual attempts to reach immigration, economic, and security agreements with the United States Current relationship between the two countries remains difficult History, Background, and Political Culture Mexican history is rich with indigenous peoples and civilizations such as the Aztecs as it's starting point o Spanish conquest greatly altered the direction of ancient Mexican societies, and Mexico fought and gained Independence in the early 19th Century Stemmed from conflicts between creoles and peninsulas and continued Spanish rule After independence, the rest of the 19th century was marked by violence and upheaval o Santa Anna Under the rule of Santa Anna, Mexico lost 55 percent of its national territory to the United States as compensation an extended as well as military occupation by the US troops Further invasion by the French in the 1860s sparked more upheaval in Mexican territories Revolution stemmed from much conflict and opposition to Porfirio rule o Porfiriato Diaz ruled from 1876 -1910 Rural policies brought severe hunger and a call for land and government reform Revolutionary Reform was not implemented until 1930 New state led by military leaders, highly authoritarian Political Parties and Society Mexico is a multiparty system o 3 dominant parties PRI- middle Older voters in the South More traditional PAN- right Northern voters Pro-business, pro-church PRD - left Southern voters Elections are very weak in Mexico and usually rigged or corrupt o Mexican voter participation is very low due to the lack of authenticity The PRI o Strong presidency based on patronage Practiced repression Highly authoritarian o Against the indigenous o Revolutionary party Very corrupt and the most dominant political party in Mexico for a long time Stayed in power through methods of patronage o Reign came to an end in 2000 Debt crisis and NAFTA pushed this to happen Debt crisis completely undermined PRI politics during this period of time Mexico needed loans, the IMF only gave loans with conditionality that undermined PRI economic politics Elections o State resources cannot be used to endorse a single candidate o Electoral observation Elections were very corrupt with much malpractice and foul play Mexico now invites several people to oversee the election Local and national Elections became a little more fair once these regulations were implemented o 2000-2006 Vicente Fox PAN First victory of a rival party; not the PRI o 2006-2012 Calderon PAN o 2012-1028 Pena Nieto PRI o Even with elections, Mexico still struggles with further democratization Some fear that the return of PRI rule will set them back while others believe that the PRI can restore social order Interest groups o Major interest groups include teachers, state workers, rural workers, organized labor, professional groups, religious groups, foreign interests and businesses and more Peasants, teachers, and state workers typically had considerable leverage Many interest groups in exchange for their members were required to be members of the PRI Loyalty was to the state Civil society remained weak and dependent on the state for much of its history 1980s private sector and economic liberalization and privatization gave civil society a new importance Pushing further towards decentralization and competitive reform with stronger and newer interest groups Women, environment, human rights, etc. The Drug War Heroin and Marijuana have risen to the top of the drug market in Mexico Security sector has grown due to the increased incidence of criminal activity; mostly drugs When Vicente Fox was elected, the drug war turned more violent o Drug lords did not know what political leaders were going to take the places of the positions held by the PRI for so long Were much more vigilant and violent to protect their interests Kingpin Strategy o Killing the heads of drug cartels creates factionalism and more violence o Led to an increase in violence in Mexico Mexico has much more opportunities for international commerce, border hopping, drug trafficking, etc. Bigger market more accessible Makes violence more easily executed Government and Bureaucracy Mexico is a federal republic built on a separation of powers o Separate and independent executive branches, legislative, and judicial Executive typically most powerful Presidents serve sic year terms o Congress Senate and Chamber of Deputies o Judiciary Local, state, and supreme courts Weakest branch Going under considerable reform Local governments are very important as usually, officials that do time at the regional level often go on to be involved in national politics Bureau consists of 18 cabinet positions and numerous additional agencies o Security sector has seen the most growth Petroleum and energy sectors are the most important but also the sectors that need the most reform o Mexico struggles with revenue problems Noncompliance with taxpaying also fuels this issue Mexico still trying to reform its state and local struggles to further democratize, but is being met with considerable resistance