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book notes

by: Gabriela Saint-Louis

book notes PSYC_3150_10

Gabriela Saint-Louis
GPA 3.04
Psychology of Sex Differences

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Psychology of Sex Differences
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Tuesday February 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC_3150_10 at George Washington University taught by Forssell in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Sex Differences in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 02/24/15
Chapter 10 sexual orientation Introduction sexual orientation refers to one39s attractions emotional romantic and physical homosexual refers to someone whose sexual orientation is toward others of the same sex heterosexuals individuals who are attracted to the other sex Bisexuals attracted to either sex acronym GLBTQQ gay lesbian bisexual transgendered queer andor questioning Models and Measures of Sexual Orientation Alfred Kinsey believed that sexual orientation existed on a continuum Kinsey scale 0 arranges sexual behavior on a continuum with quot0quot representing exclusively heterosexual behavior quot3quot representing behavior that is equally heterosexual and homosexual and quot6quot representing exclusively homosexual behavior 0 scale focuses on seual behaviors rather than on a person39s emotions or sexual identity Klein sexual orientation grid KSOG considers 0 sexual behavior sexual fantasies sexual attraction social preference emotional preference lifestyle preference 0 selfidentity according to the KSOG both women and men have an emotional preference for women as close friends and show a social preference for members of the same sex uses the phrase quotsame sex onlyquot rather than kinsey39s quotexclusively homosexualquot Klein found that for some people sexual behavior can change from one period of their life to another and sexual identity sometimes has little to do with a person39s sexual behavior OOOOO Bisexuality bisexual person is sexually and emotionally attracted to both sexes to varying degrees people with bisexual attractions outnumber those with samesex attractions especially among women Diamond 2008 0 women are more quot uidquot in their sexuality according to Kinsey s scale as people become more attracted to their same sex they become less attracted to the other sex 0 Michael Storms 1980developed his twodimensional model of sexual orientation based on his nding that bisexuals were as likely to report samesex fantasies as were homosexuals and as likely to report other sex fantasies as were heterosexuals o Meredith Chivers women regardless of their seual orientation experienced strong genital arousal to both male and female sexual stimuli 0 Richard Lippa found that for men a high sex drive was associated with increased sexual attraction to one sex or the other males if they are gay females if they are hetero Sexual Fluiditv sexual uidity the idea that a person may change from othersex attractions to samesex attractions throughout his or her life Whereas men are more likely to view their sexuality as xed and innate women are more likely to see it as subject to change based on speci c relationships choices and circumstances the uidity of sexuality especially women s does not mean sexual orientation is all about choice 0 women are born with a sexual orientation but it39s not the last word pers se in their sexual expression Prevalence of Homosexuality psychosocial theories of homosexuality suggest sexual orientation is learned psychoanalytic and learning theory 0 psychoanalytic theory development of a gay indent might result from parental behaviors freud was one of the rst proponents of this idea hypothesizing men became gay due to interactions with emotionally distant fathers and overbearing mothers no research has supported this belief 0 Learning Theory suggests that bad heterosexual experiences cause a person to become gay n social factor has been found that is completely responsible for samesex attraction samesex sexual behaviors have been observed in 450 animal species bottle nosed dolphins show one of the highest rates of samesex sexual behavior of any animal about half of male sexual interactions are with other males Biological Factors Underlying Homosexuality direct biolooical causation theorv suggests that genes and hormones work on the developing brain and directly affect sexual orientation 0 Existence of a biological difference in gay and straight men does not necessarily mean that the biological factor caused them to be gay Genetic ln uences o Concordance rate the extent to which two individuals usually twins share similar characteristics such as height weight or sexual orientation 0 survey of gay men and lesbians about their siblings have led to discovery of concordance rate of homosexuality 0 based on study done by several scientists Bailey amp Pillard 1991 and more how often the sibling of a gay man was also gay repeated study to see how often lesbians had sisters who were gay 0 study suggests there is probably a genetic component to homosexuality but that samesex attractions is not entirely genetic fraternal twins share 50 of their genes as do nonOtwin brothers however the concordance rate for gay fraternal twins was more than twice as high as seen in nontwin brothers suggests that some environmental facto perhaps in the womb in uences male sexual orientation Genetics seem to be less of a factor in female sexual orientation myth gay gene on X chromosome too date no distinct gay gene has been identi ed although other studies have suggested the involvement of other chromosomes some gay people get married and have kids for the same reason heterosexual people do having children is a basic desire perhaps biological factors that predispose someone to a samesex orientation give adaptive bene ts that better allow those genes to be passed down prenatal in uence 0 the more older brothers a man has the greater his chances of being gay with each older brother a man39s probability of being gay increases by 33 o Maternal immune hypothesis suggests that when a woman is pregnant with a male fetus her immune system becomes sensitized to proteins that only males possess and her immune system may affect the prenatal brain development of subsequent male fetuses Hormonal In uences o hormone levels in adult humans do not in uence sexual orientation gay men and straight men have no difference in their levels of circulating androgens alternation in hormone levels in adults by surgical removal of the gonads or hormone injections will not change sexual orientation exposure to prenatal hormones it is thougth that higher prenatal androgen exposure reduces the 2D4D ratio 2D4D ratio the ratio of length of the pointer nger compared to the ring nger this tends to be lower in men and lesbians than in heterosexual women Neuroanatomical in uences 0 area of the hypothalamus was found to be twice as large in volume in heterosexual men than in women and gay men suggests that there may be a biological foundation to male sexual orientation however just because the gay men had a smaller lNAH3 than the straight men does nt mean that this area controls sexual orientation another brain difference between gay and straight men differences in the suprachiasmatic nucleus the corpus callosum and in brain symmetry Can Orientation be changed conversion or reparative therapy a type of therapy condemned by the American Psychological Association that seeks to convert a gay person into a heterosexual this group along with NARTH National Association for the Research and Therapy of Homosexuality believe that homosexuality is a mental illness primarily caused by parenting styles 0 methods of converting someone who is currently gay include psychotherapy aversion therapy and of course Gatorade their methods were pretty unethical on so many levels Living and Loving as a Gay Man or Lesbian the idea of the freewheeling gay lifestyle does not represent the lives of gays and lesbians today While a study showed that nearly half of gays and lesbians said their orientation in uenced their career choice gays and lesbians are found in all occupations Ryan amp Futterman2001 Growing up Gay while many gays and lesbians rst knew they were quotdifferentquot as children they were understandably hesitant to speak of it or hoped thy would quotgrow out of it Gay and lesbian youth who are also members of an ethnic minority face double or triple discrimination in society lesbian and gay adolescents quotmust learn to manage a stigmatized identity without actives support and modeling from parents and familyquot Coming Out coming out acknowledging to oneself and others that one is gay or lesbian quot coming out of the closetquot bene ts and risks 0 major bene t individual can live openly and honestly without screening conversations or denying his or her identity psychologically bene cial 0 potential risks risks losing friends family and jobs gays and lesbians may choose to be out in some situations and not toehrs based on their assessment of the possible dangers of as ua on about 18 of hate crimes are motivated by sexual orientation 0 does not necessarily mean making a big statement 0 father is usually last to know Age people come out at different stages in their life some when they are young others when they are grandparents depends on personal social and historical factors Race Gay and lesbian African Americans Hispanics and aASian Americans are less likely than Caucasians to be out to their parents perhaps familial disapproval or more negative attitudes regarding homosexuality Education moreedcuated white gay men are more likely to be out than less educated white gay men with African American gay men as education increases the likelihood of being out decreases maybe fear of discrimination due to both race and sexual orientationO Occupation Gay men in higher income brackets were less likely to be out may feel they have more to lose 0 most closeted professions schoolteachers physicians attorneys and ministers those in entertainment artistic or foodservice elds are most likely to be out Resbonse to coming out parents may worry about their fault in the situation possible future for kids and grandchildren PFLAG Parents and friends of lesbians and Gays an organization that helps parents come to terms with their child39s sexual orientation and gain support from other families in similar situation Gay and Lesbian Relationships samesex and otherOsex relationships have more similarities than differences 0 like heterosexuals most gay men and lesbians want to form stable longlasting committed relationships share intimate feelings with a partner and balance independence with togetherness 0 Myth in gay and lesbian relationships one partner plays the quotman39s role and one plays the quotwoman s rolequot samesex relationships tend to be more egalitarian than straight relationships which are more likely to adhere to traditional gender roles o Lesbians may have higher relationship satisfaction than other couples high levels of equality in the relationship 0 widespread belief that samesex couples have lower levels of commitment than married couples studies on the stability of gay relationships should compare gay couples with cohabiting straight couples rather than with married couples because the social and nancial rami cations of legal divorce are more prohibitive than those of simply breaking up 0 The only area in which gay and lesbian partners fare worse than heterosexual partners who were parents was in the area of social support Sexual Activitv stereotype commitmentprone lesbian and promiscuous gay male same sex male couples lack of female in uence may lead to the sexual extremes of male behavior lesbians more likely to have had fewer sexual partners and are more likely to be monogamous 0 these differences are probably related more to dissimilarities in the genders than to anything having to do with sexual orientation Frequency of sexual activity is thought to be highest in gay male couples followed by heterosexual couples with lesbians having the lowest frequency of sexual activity the more males in a relationship the more often a couple has sex one difference samesex partners tend to be less quotgoal driven than heterosexual partners to be more aware ftheir partner39s subjective state and to spend more time in foreplay pretty much Frequency of sexual activity is thought to be highest in gay male couples followed by heterosexual couples with lesbians having the lowest frequency of sexual activity the more males in a relationship the more often a couple has sex one difference samesex partners tend to be less quotgoal driven than heterosexual partners to be more aware ftheir partner39s subjective state and to spend more time in foreplay pretty much Marriade Edualitv While the US federal government does not recognize any form of gay marriage some states have allowed different types f unions between Same sex partners 0 civil marriage two people have all the rights and obligations of marriage via a license issued by the state government Religious officials in the United States have the authority to also establish civil marriages civil unions give samegender couples a legal status similar to civil marriage a legal contract between partners that confers all or some of the rights of marriage but without the historical and religious meaning Domestic Relationship a relationship between two people sometimes of the same gender who live together and mutually support each other as spouses Samesex marriage debate opposition of legal recognition of samesex marriages appeal t tradition and religious teachings to support their position supporters of gay marriage cite human rights as well as evidence that same sex and heterosexual relationships do not differ in their basic dimensions Current Laws Regarding SameSex marriage DOMA Defense of Marriage Act 0 signed by President Bill Clinton 1996 allows each state to deny any samesex marriage or civil union that has been recognized in another state and which asserts that federal law recognizes that a marriage is quot a legal union of one man and one womanquot and that spouse quotrefers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wifequot although samesex marriage is not legal in the United States many countries around the world recognize gay marriages or civil unions UK France etc July 2004 Virginia banned civil unions between samesex partners Gay Parenting Many samesex couples have children from previous heterosexual relationships others were arti cially inseminated or used a surrogate mother and others adopt Despite popular concern about children raised by gays and lesbians that they will have a higher incidence of genderidentity confusion or bee more likely to identify as gay when they grow up 0 the vast majority of children raised by lesbians and gay men grow up to be heterosexual some concerns that children wills suffer due to the sigma of having gay parents 0 homophobia and discrimination can negatively impact a child s life children raised by lesbians who reported homophobic encounters showed more psychological distress than children who had not been harassed There are a number of cases in which gays and lesbians have lost custody of their biological children simply because of their sexual orientation Outcomes for Children children of samesex parents ae atleast as well adjusted as children raised by heterosexual parents Farr Forssell et al APA ABA and other organizations have all released statements supporting samesex parenting children raised by lesbians found that these children were less likely to suffer from physical and sexual abuse than were their peers who were raised by heterosexuals o perhaps due to absence of adult heterosexual men in households 0 lesbian parents more concerned with providing a male role model for children than are heterosexual mothers children less constrained by traditional gender roles 0 boys are less aggressive girls are more inclined to consider nontraditional careers such as doctor lawyer or engineer fewer studies of children raised by two men but gay fathers more likely than straight fathers to put their children before their career Gays and lesbians have been raising children as long as there have been parents and children issue at hand is whether the children of these unions will be raised withlegal and nancial bene ts automatically conferred upon children of heterosexual parents 0 medical 0 security 0 Financial Adoption Laws samesex couples are forbidden to adopt children in Mississippi in several states only 10 states plus DC give the opportunity for samesex couples raising a child to jointly establish themselves as the legal parents of the child Gav and lesbian seniors almost 25 of samesex couples include one partner over the age of 55 gay and lesbian seniors must contend with additional nancial health and accommodation problems 0 because there is no legal federal recognition of same sexrelationships when one partner dies the other is denied bene ts like social secur y Social Attitudes Americans are more intolerant about samesex relationships than most other western countries a person39s age sex religious views race and political perspective are often correlated with their views on homosexuality Males tend to be more intolerant than women especially toward gay men and homophobia may be more common among some minority cultures in US the greater intolerance toward homosexuality in black and Latino cultures may be one of the factors leading to the skyrocketing rates of HIV infection among black and Latino men 0 hiding their gay identity they are less aware of and less likely to disclose their HIV status those who believe that sexual orientation is biologically determined are more likely to support gay and lesbian civil rights than those who believe homosexuality is a result of environmental in uences CrossCultural Persoectives of homosexualitv some consider male sameOsex behavior as a necessity for initiation into maood while others punish such behaviors with death most European countries are accepting of homosexuality in many atin American cultures a man is not considered to be homosexual if he plays he active role of penetrator rather than the passive role of the penetrated hombre hombre as a rite of manhood in the sambia tribe of papua New Guinea young boys are required to fellate older boys and swallow the sperm to acquire strength and virility in certain arts of the middle east homosexual acts are punishable by death Atitutudes about samesex relationships throuoh historv Ancient Greece 0 marriage was for procreation and nancial bene ts and love was discouraged between spouses 0 considered manly to have samesex desires and intimate relationships between men were exalted physically intellectually and sprititually o adolescent boys often had a sexual relationship with an older mentor homosexual behavior was legal and generally accepted until the end of the 12th century when the persecution of quotsodomitesquot intensi ed o the act of sodomy included oral or anal sex that was considered heretical not the person early American views on homosexuality re ects puritan roots 0 all of the 13 original colonies had laws against sodomy making the act punishable by death in some cases 0 until 1961 all 50 states had laws on the books against sodomy until they were declared unconsituttional in 2003 20th century 0 Nazi Germany homosexuality was seen to be part of a Jewish plot that would emasculate german men and diminish the perpetuation of the Aryan race 0 gay men were declared enemies of the state Relioious Persoectives of homosexualitv Although many use the bible as a weapon against gays and lesbians the JudeoChristian Bible contains few explicit statements about homosexuality different parts of the bible were written in Hebrew Aramaic and Greek and trnslations may change the meanings of the passages more conservative branches of both Christianity and Judaism condemn homosexual behavior 0 less conservative branches permit samesex marriages under Catholicism homosexual acts are seen as a sin and gay men and lesbians are instructed to embrace chastity so as not to sin Hinduisim o Kama sutra states that homosexual sex is to be engaged in and enjoyed for its own sake 0 some hindus look upon all non0prcreative seual acts as negative and homosexuality was illegal in India until 2009 0 nothing in buddha39s saying exclude homosexuality SameSex Protravals in the Media gays and lesbians are more visible in the media than ever before in the past gays nd lesbians in lms did not fare well in the 21St century gays and lesbians are much mre visible on tiv although many of their portrayals are of stereotypical images perhaps because popular music often represents rebellion and teh outing of conventional mores gays and lesbians thrive in the music industry Discrimination and Antigay prejudice Discrimination although society is much more accepting of samesex relationships than it was in the past discrimination still exists in employment health family matters and in he military 0 Employment Title VII of the Civil Rights Act guarantees protection against discrimination in employment on the basis of race religion gender national origin and disability because sexual orientation is not included in 29 states it is legal to re an employee based solely on his or her sexual orientation 2006 European Union banned discrimination against homosexuals in workplace 0 Gays in the military prior to WWI no formal mechanism for the exclusion of gays and lesbians from military service after WWI the army began implementing processes to identify and disquality potential homosexuals in 1993 don t ask don39t tell became the military policy toward homosexuality under this policy as long as service men and women hid their sexual orientation their commanding of cers were not allowed to scrutinize their sexuality although if homosexual behavior as even suspected an of cer could initiate an investigation Health Issues lesbians are more at risk of breast and endometrial cancers than are heterosexual women oral contraceptives and childbirth lessen a woman39s risk of these cancers lesbians are also more likely to smoke men who have sex with men and women who have sex with women have higher rates of depression anxiety and PTSD HomophobiaHomonegativismantigay prejudice homophobia a negative emotional responsesuch as fear anger anxiety or discomfort to gays and lesbians many things that are labeled quothomophobiaquot are better described as o homonegativism prejudice or heterosexism o homonegativism negative actions attitudes beliefs and judgments toward homosexuals or homosexuality Biphobia o bisexuals experience distrust not only from heterosexuals but also from the lesbiangay community 0 many people hold a monosexist belief that only legitimate forms of sexuality are heterosexuality and homosexuality Whv does Hom0phobia occur Religious reasons traditional genderrole stereotypes latent homosexuality ignorance fears of society upheaval Hate crimes violence or crimes committed because the victim belongs to a certainr ace religion ethnicity or sexual orientation


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