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Date Created: 04/15/14
PSYCH 101 Midterm 1 NotesStudy Guide Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology Definition of Psychology ScientI39fic study of behavior amp mind 0 Behavior Actions amp responses we can directly observe 0 Mind Internal processes that cannot be seen directly ie thoughts amp feelings Must be inferred from observable measurable responses 0 ie See someone smiling Can infer that person is happy Goals of Psychology Four central goals 0 Description 0 Explanation 0 Control 0 Application Basic Research Seeking to gain knowledge for its own sake Applied Research Seeking to gain knowledge for a practical answer to a problem Reallife application Empirical evidence Evidence gained through experience amp observation Levels of Analysis 0 Biological 0 Psychological 0 Environmental Use science of psychology to avoid or at least minimize pitfalls such as bias Think Critically Take an active role in understanding the world Ask for explanations about the data Types of Psychology 0 Clinical 0 Biopsychology 0 Developmental 0 Experimental 0 Industria Organizationa 0 Personality 0 Social MindBody MindBody interactions The relations between mental processes and the functioning of other bodily systems Dualism vs Monoism Dualism 0 Mind is a separate spiritual entity 0 Mind is not subject to physical law 0 Can39t learn about one without studying the other Monoism 0 Mind is not spiritually separate from body 0 Can learn about mind by studying brain processes British empiricism 0 17thcentury school of philosophy championed by Locke 0 All the contents of the mind are gained experimentally through the senses Early Schools of Psychology Structuralism 0 Early German school of psychology 0 Wundt amp Titchener 0 Attempted to study the structure of the mind by breaking it down into its basic components o Introspection I Used to study sensations I When people analyze their own behavior and inner experiences after exposed to sensory stimuli Functionalism 0 Early American school of psychology 0 William James 0 Focused on functions of consciousness and behavior in helping organisms adapt to their environment and satisfy their needs Perspectives on Behavior Psychodynamic 0 The unconscious mind 0 All behaviors are the result of unconscious processes 0 Wasn39t just related to abnormal behavior Also related to normal behavior 0 Freud 0 Psychoanalysis 0 Terms repression denial defense mechanisms 0 Modern psychodynamic references childhood events affecting experiences as adults Behaviorism 0 External environment and learning shape behavior 0 Should study only observable stimuli and behavior 0 Watson and Skinner 0 Pavlov o Conditioning Associate something w a stimulus 0 John Locke39s quotBlank tabletquot Qgnitive Behaviorism 0 Focuses on the mind more 0 Learning experiences influence our thoughts which influence our behavior Humanistic 0 Emphasis on personal freedom and choice personal growth and sef actuaization 0 Rejected psychodynamic and behaviorism merely reacting to environment 0 Positive psychology Egg 0 Nature of the mind 0 Views humans as information processers governed by thought 0 How mental processes influence behavior 0 Gestalt o How the mind organizes individual pieces of info into big picture o The whole is greater than the sum of its parts 0 Jean Piaget o Theory Children39s thinking improve w age and become more sophisticated 0 Cognitive neuroscience o fMR functional MRI measures what part of the brain lights up colors while the participant performs tasks Sociocultural 0 We are influenced by our social environments and cultural learning 0 Cultural psychology o How culture is transmitted through generations o Different cultures psychology I ie Individualism vs Collectivism Biological How bodily functions regulate behavior and psychological characteristics Karl Lashley Behavioral genetics o How genes govern behavior Evolutionary psychologists o How evolution has biologically predisposed modern humans to have certain behaviors Chapter 2 Scientific Process Scientific Process Identify question Formulate a testable hypothesis Conduct research to test hypothesis Analyze data and draw conclusion Develop testable theories for further research Theories cannot be proven They can only be supported or unsupported Uquot39gtS quot Variable Any change or factor that can vary Must be measurable Operational definition Defines a variable in terms of how it can be measured Reporting variables ssues w sef reporting Other ways of reporting measure overt behavior psychological tests physiologic measures Sef report social bias problem Ethics in Research 0 Psychology research follows strict Ethic Code by the APA for human and animal research 0 Important aspects are informed consent disclosure minimizing deception and a proper riskbenefit analysis of the research Methods of Research Descriptive Research 0 Seeks to identify behavior in natural situations 0 Case study 0 Naturalistic Observation 0 Survey Research Case Study n depth analysis of an individual or group or event Good for rare occurrences Can challenge the validity of an existing theory 0 Issues o Cannot determine causation o Cannot generalize to larger population Naturalistic Observation 0 Observes behavior as it occurs in the subjects natural setting 0 Issues o Cannot determine causation o Bias of researcher o Presence of research may influence how subjects behave Survey Research Questionnaires and interviews Population All individuals you are interested in studying Sample Subset from population Random sampling Each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected Random assignment Each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to a group This will counteract the differences among the participants Counterbalancingz Order of conditions is varied Control group Baseline group to which the experimental group39s results can be compared to Experimental group Manipulate the variable in this group Correlational research Experiments 0 Measures one variable measures a second variable 0 Statistically determines whether the two variables are related Correlation does not establish causation Only way to establish causation is conducting the experiment in a lab where all outside variables are controlled for Issues Bidirectionality Does X 9 Y or Y9 X Third Variable Problem Z causes X and Y Correlation Coefficient o Direction 0 Strength 100 is perfect positive correlation 100 is perfect negative correlation 0 or no correlation 0 Often measured using scatterplots Validity 0 Internal validity o Examines experiment itself Was it a valid experiment Did the experiment do what it was supposed to do 0 External validity o How an experiment can be generalized o Can the results be generalized to other settings Threats to Validity Placebo effect Use doubleblind procedure to combat the placebo effect 0 Experimenter expectancy beliefs Confounding variables Chapter 4 The Brain Neurons Specialized nerve cells that communicate with each other Main components Dendrites Receive messages from neighboring neurons Nucleus RNADNA information Soma Cell body Myelin Sheath Speeds up electrical impulses Axon Tail conducts electrical impulses Action Potential Nerve impulse resulting in the polarization of an axon cell39s membrane travels down the axon allowing neurons to communicate Change in charge 70mV or 40 mV Process Resting state Sodium ions are outside neuron Potassium ions are inside Sodium Depolarization The shift from resting potential to action potential Absolute Refractory Period Time immediately after an action potential has occurred neuron cannot generate more action potential immediately after Process electrical gt chemical Illusory correlation Things that may make sense to have a correlation but have no correlation Synapse The gap between two neurons Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers specialized for communication released at the synapse Major Neurotransmitters 0 Acetylcholine Ach o Having too little is associated with Alzheimer39s disease 0 Norepinephrine NE 0 Serotonin 5HT 0 Dopamine DA o Having too little is associated with Parkinson39s disease o Having too much is associated with Schizophrenia 0 GABA o Endorphin Information is sent in the form of electrical signals along the axons and chemical at the synapse Neurotransmitters are deactivated through reuptake up simply broken down Brain Imagining Methods 0 EEG 0 CAT Scans CT Xray looking at anatomy of brain 0 MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging looking at anatomy of brain 0 PET Scans looking at functioning 0 fMR looking at functioning The Nervous System 0 Central Nervous System o Brain o Spinal Cord 0 Peripheral Nervous System o Sensory Afferent Neurons o Motor Efferent Neurons I Somatic Nervous System voluntary muscle movement I Automatic Nervous System 0 Sympathetic Nervous System 0 Parasympathetic Nervous System These two balance each other out to create homeostasis Hindbrain 0 Medulla 0 Pons 0 Cerebellum Midbrain 0 Reticular formation Forebrain 0 Cerebral Cortex 0 Thalamus 0 Hypothalamus 0 Amygdala 0 Hippocampus Cerebral Cortex Lateral and Central divide brain in four regions Temporal lobe Auditory information Occipital lobe Visual information Cerebellum Movement Wernicke Speech understanding Broca39s area Speech formation Corpus Callosum A neural link between the two hemispheres Lateralization The relatively greater localization of a function in one hemisphere or the other Left Verbal speech math logic associated with positive emotions Aphasia Partial or total loss of ability to communicate damage to left hemisphere Right Spatial faces mental imagery musical and artistic abilities associated with negative emotions The Split brain Neural Plasticity Ability of neurons to change structure and functions Neurogenesis The production of new neurons in the nervous system Neural Stem Cells immature cells that have the potential to mature into any type of neuron or glial cell Endocrine System Hormones Chemical messengers that secrete different glands in the blood stream Pitutuary gland Known as the quotmaster glandquot because it secretes hormones that influences other glands Chapter 5 Sensation and Perception Sensation Stimulusdetection process Perception how the brain interprets and processes what we sense visual auditory touch smell taste Psychophysics Absolute threshold Lowest intensity at which a stimuli is able to be detected 50 of the time Difference threshold How much each stimuli must differ for them to be different 50 of the time Sensory Adaptation Becoming less sensitive to an unchanging stimulus the longer that we39re exposed to the stimulus Evolutionary benefit We are cued in to the changes that we need to be aware of to increase chances of surviving Sense Vision Retina Incoming light is converted into nerve impulses innermost layer of eye Cones Allow us to perceive color function best in bright light Rods Allow us to perceive brightness function best in low light Transition to the brain optic nerve codes and rods gt bipolar cells gt ganglion cells gt optic nerve Visual Transduction When light waves hit the retina Dark Adaptations Photoreceptor absorbs light gt decrease in photo pigments Need to regenerate Regenerategt increaserestored receptor sensitivity Color Dual Process Theory Trichromatic Theory Cones respond to photo pigments that are sensitive to either red blue or green Opponent Processes Theory Cells outside the cones respond to red green opponent processes Color Blindness Dichromatic Can39t perceive one of the three systems either red green or bue yeow Monochromatic Can only perceive blackwhite Retina gt optic nerve gt thalamus gt primary visual cortex gt visual association cortex Primary Visual Cortex Feature Detectors Neurons that fire in response to only specific characteristics can pick up meaningful things in the environment Visual Association Cortex Memories and knowledge help us to combine and interpret visual stimuli Perception o Top down processing 0 Bottomup processing Attention Inattention blindness Failure to consciously perceive unattended stimuli Stimuli related to fear threats or danger are especially likely to be perceived because they cue us to help us survive Gestalt Principles 0 Similarity 0 Proximity 0 Closure 0 Con nu y
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