HIST 2020 Notes (Apr. 19 & 21)
HIST 2020 Notes (Apr. 19 & 21) HIST 2020-016
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by DeAngelica Rose on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2020-016 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Clay Cooper in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Survey of United States History II in History at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
4/19 Next Tuesday’s a review session Final Exam: 5/5 Final Format: 4 IDs, 1 Essay (pre midterm), 1 Cumulative Essay (will be given in advance) Music in the ‘50s: Rock ‘n Roll Bill Haley “Rock Around the Clock” (1953) o Partying Elvis Presley ‘That's Alright’ o Didn’t write this song (or a lot of his songs for that matter) o Came from African American musicians o Got his start from rerecording black songs without crediting the actual writers o Censored on some shows (they blocked out his dancing by showing him from the waist up since he was thrusting so much) Seemed to have sprang up overnight to whites Music before this was mostly about old timey things (like driving cattle) o Instruments are kinda swing, kinda jazz o Warm, smooth singing Electric guitars were used more in rock ‘n roll Tempo was more upbeat (much easier to dance to since it had a lot more energy to it) Subject matter was different o Less innocent than music prior to this o About sexuality (not always explicitly) Rhythm and Blues (same as rock ‘n roll musically) (‘30s and ‘40s) o But the African American name for it o Kept out of the mainstream o Blues + faster rhythms o Sometimes this was already called rock ‘n roll o African American slang for sex Rock ‘n roll basically was rhythm and blues only sung by white men o Only acceptable when white people sing it Parents were reluctant to accept rock ‘n roll o Why were they reluctant? Suburbs that families have retreated to aren’t progressive areas Don’t accept change Sexuality and race Because of the lyrics and their sexual nature, parents worried about their daughter’s well being Big Mama Thornton ‘Hound Dog’ o Originally her song and makes more sense when a woman sings it than when a man does o Elvis took the song and sang it literally Doesn’t really make sense given gender roles at the time o Good representation of how Elvis (and other white rock ‘n roll artists) took songs and sang them without understanding what the song was supposed to be about Elvis’ and Haley’s style was often referred to as rockabilly Memphis plays a crucial roll in rockabilly o Studio: Sun Studios Signed people like Elvis, Johnny Cash, Carl Perkins, Jerry Lee Lewis Really the big sound in the ‘50s Made it sound a little more white Lots of opposition but got more acceptance Teens liked it Spoke to them as being more rebellious Becomes a part of the American landscape (rock ‘n roll) A few white djs started playing the original African American version to allow a few African Americans to cross into the mainstream (Chuck Berry, Little Richard) Shows the distinctive quality of the radio o You can segregate space but not sound (can’t keep them from tuning into radio stations and you have no clue what color someone is by their voice) When it was clear it was sticking around for a while the people who were resistance (parents) decided to lead an effort against it so music execs started catering to them o Tried to get the excitement of rock and roll and hand it to crooners (more savory characters) to get them to sing it o Ex) Pat Boone’s version of Tutti Frutti An attempt to sanitize rock ‘n roll and remove the sexual element Doesn’t work Ultimately influences an entire generation o Baby Boomers (1946 - 1964) (after WWII) o Largest generation so far o Grew up with rock ‘n roll A reality that both white and black teens are listening to the same music Parents were afraid of this since they might go to the same places/dating/having sex/getting married etc. If you’re a fan of black music/culture you’ll see them as inspiration (something to aspire to) instead of as someone who’s below you Doesn’t change racial views Brought up questions about race and made sex/sexuality more palpable in conversations Election of 1960 John F Kennedy (D) and Richard Nixon (R) Very different Kennedy o From an oil family (super wealthy), charming, attractive, attractive wife and kids (all American family) and new to politics o Catholic Still pretty unusual Nixon o Experienced, served as Pres. Eisen’s VP, well versed in foreign policy, knew about secret military info that Kennedy didn’t Televised debates (first) o About 43% of the population tuned in o People were transfixed (TV was pretty new in most people’s homes) o Shows a different story than what would be on the radio On the radio Nixon would have done well since he knew his stuff Told more about what was happening with Nixon (TV) o Quickly grew beards so even if he shaved that morning by that night he’d have noticeable stubble o To try and look clean shaven his handlers put make up on him to disguise it But the lights are super hot and Nixon started sweating which made them think he’s nervous his make up started to run and he looked sickly On TV everyone agreed that Kennedy won since he was much calmer Showed the importance of TV (this election) o You had to appear in control, photogenic, charismatic, etc o Voters are drawn to people who look like they should be in charge (and influences their vote) Changes the process of being elected Gave an inspirational address in ’61 that spoke to baby boomers who were teens o “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country” o activists were drawn to Kennedy o another promise made by the end of the decade they’d go to the moon NASA fulfilled it in July ‘69 Assassinated in ’63 but his death motivated lots of things (trip to the moon, civil rights) Kennedy’s 2 Foreign Policy Problems 1) Cuba (1959) Fidel Castro took over Radical revolutionary Wanted to overthrow capitalism (did so in ’59) US maintained a relationship with them since the end of Spanish American war (liberated Cuba but only if they could keep Guantanimo bay and the Platt Amendment, the US reserved the right to intervene in Cuban affairs if someone came into power who threatened the business interests/or put in danger the US) o US Declared Embargo Refused to trade with Cuba o CIA wanted to train about 1000 Cuban refugees (give them supplies etc.) and send them back to hopefully overthrow Castro o Gave the okay for the Bay of Pigs Invasion (’61) Only ex-Cuban refugees trained by the CIA participated but it was a fail Why not send US forces? They’re worried that Russia will step in so they didn’t want to directly attack Only causes them to get more involved with the Soviet Union o Creates an alliance with the Soviet Union o ’62 nuclear missiles were brought into Cuba Cuban Missile Crisis ICBMs could shoot hundreds of miles and carry nuclear missiles with them Most of the SE of the US were in range One of the scariest times: the threat of nuclear destruction seemed very present People were very tense o Kennedy was put in a bind to decide what he was going to do o Initially ordered a blockade to keep any more from coming in o Negotiates with the Soviet Union for the removal of the missiles in exchange for the US giving their word to not interfere with Cuban politics again and they (US) have to remove their own weapons from Turkey New Soviet Union leader Nikita Khrushchev 4.21 Vietnam War (1964 - 1973) Had been a French colony Won its independence (defeated French in battle) North Vietnam fell under Ho Chi Minh (communist) o Wanted to spread communism Kennedy was still following containment and was determined to keep S. Vietnam from becoming communist (but wants to do it without the US having to put troops on the ground) so he sent military advisors and green berets to advise and train the S. Vietnamese o He was worried China would interfere like with the Korean War Terrain of Vietnam o Jungles o Low lands along the coast o Mountains o Not land the US was trained to fight on When Kennedy was killed in Nov. ’63 his successor (Lyndon Johnson) went the opposite way with Vietnam (he wanted to go in) Led the charge to get US into Vietnam entered because of incident at the Gulf of Tonkin o US ship was fired on (no damage) but Johnson and Congress used this to make the Golf of Tonkin Resolution which gave the OK for US to enter the war o US wasn’t okay with is People were really against the draft (mainly recruited minorities and poor people) Ways to get around if you were someone of privilege Soldiers were spat upon and/or not greeted upon their return They assumed soldiers went voluntarily Guerrila Tactics o Ambushes, sneak attacks, trip wires, etc. o Designed for small numbers of people fighting in the jungle o Even though US had greater fire power they couldn’t use it since the Vietnamese were used to their terrain and used it to their advantage Vietcong o People in S. Vietnam and were okay with communism Didn’t like the US interfering US weren’t welcomed as heroes Soldiers (US) didn’t really know who they were fighting 60,000 American soldiers were killed in Vietnam returnees didn’t feel appreciated, had PTSD and drug addictions had a really difficult time readjusting very trying time for American people Nixon eventually pulled the plug in ‘73 Lyndon Johnson (’63 -’69) Responsible for escalation in Vietnam Target of many protesters o Kent State 1970 (most famous protest): students were protesting the war, national guard was called out, opened fire and killed four protesters Great Society o Made a wide range of programs to help people who were down on their luck (unemployed) o Part of his bigger idea: War on Poverty o Spends lots of money to try and reduce poverty Increases well fare Medicare and Medicaid Medicare: designed for older people Medicaid: designed for people below a certain income Increased spending for education Elementary and secondary education act o Increased funding for schools most in need (originally based off of local taxes so places not well off weren’t raising much tax money) Deindustrialization Production jobs start going away (factory workers, steel workers, industrial plant workers) Rust Belt: Buffalo, Pittsburg, Cleveland, Detroit Where were the jobs going? Overseas because it’s cheaper Fiscal conservatives were getting anxious and weren’t happy with Johnson Election of ‘68 Modern republican party first starts showing up Nixon runs for (R) and wins o The chaos of ’68 was what secured his win April ’68: MLK was assassinated and riots and protests erupted around the country When democrats met in Chicago to pick a candidate the city was in chaos The violence was so great it overshadowed the democrats picking their candidate Nixon used this for his gain Ran a campaign of law and order All of the riots/after math of King’s death (white suburban fears of black power) would go away Wants things how they used to be (addressing white suburban people) o Head of the New Right New Right Who goes in here? People who were tired of civil rights protests o People who didn’t want to talk about race and pretend that everything was fine Fiscal conservatives o Wanted fed. Gov. to spend less Family values (evangelical Christianity) o last African Americans in the rep. party finally left o conservative Southerners who were democrats are now republican New Left o Who goes in here? African Americans Civil rights protestors Women Hippies (counterculture) People in favor of expanding civil rights for all They wanted a more inclusive government More about ideas and social change Native Americans Latinos American Indian Movement (AIM) o Frustrated with economic possibilities and blaming US gov for it Taking their land, culture, etc. Wasn’t allowing them to govern themselves o First activism in ‘69 They occupy and Island off the coast of Cali: Alcatraz o Alcatraz Shut down maximum security fed. prison Where US’s most dangerous criminals went People didn’t understand why they were doing this As the protestors stayed on the islands for many months, they made use of a passage in a treaty between US and Natives Any fed land not being used by US could be used by Native Americans No real significance other than it was a weird place Made a symbolic point US was always looking for loopholes to kick them out Trying to raise awareness of the fact that they still exist Inspired by sit in movement of civil rights They get some attention but when they want more attention it becomes more violent o In ’72 they occupy bureau of Indian Affairs building in D.C. Gov. agency that was in charge of Native relations for hundreds of years and they felt they (Bureau of Indian Affairs) were also part of their undoing Took it at gun point Held the flag upside to show their unhappiness with federal gov It got them the attention they wanted o They get more self governing power Could control their own school curriculum Put in their own history, language, customs, etc. Latinos o Cesar Chavez Latino civil rights leader Labor organizer Most of his civil rights work was labor work Most Latino workers were migrant workers o Occupation: hard agricultural labor Treated very poorly During WWII the US started bringing temp workers from places like Panama, Mexico, Dominican Republic, etc. so they could move from place to place and do hard work The expectation was that at the war’s end they would go home (some did, but there’s a mainly a surge of people from Latin America) Almost no safety regulations worked long hours physically/sexually abused by bosses language barrier illegal immigrants couldn’t go to the law for help this gave them (bosses) extra power and allowed them to pay them very little o why boycott? To hurt the profits of companies who mistreated their Latino workers Gay Rights: Stonewall Raid (1969) Began when a gay nightclub in NYC was raided by cops and they began using brutality against the clubbers as they arrested them Brought to light that gay culture was real and there was a way they could communicate/meet o Code words (‘can I have a light?’) (arrested everyone who was asked this even if they actually just needed a light for their cigarette) o Print ads Want ads specifically looking for roommates Certain code words would tip someone off The violence of this raid brought to the public’s attention about gay rights o Wanted to decriminalize gay rights o Wanted gay marriage (not really talked about much at the start) o Very slow support for this until around 2000 Women’s Rights Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) o 1972 Congress approved but needed 2/3 of the states to approve it o got hung up in many southern states o opposed by Phyllis Schlafly wanted to stop women from having equal rights? Why? She might have to get a job “why would women settle for equal rights and lower ourselves to that?” women could be drafted differences that define men and women would disappear largely prevents this amendment from actually passing Nixon popular with white social conservatives in the suburbs paranoid about being elected o that did he do to ensure his reelection? Watergate Scandal What did he get in trouble for? o Spying (paranoid about what the democrats were planning so he had people break into their rooms and implant listening devices) o Over the next year or two it came out that there was a mole in the CIA who was slowly leaking info to journalists Now Nixon looked super guilty Doesn’t sit well with congress Ultimately resigns in ‘74 Leaves Gerald Ford in charge o Wasn’t Nixon’s original VP o Spiro Agnew resigned before Nixon because of Watergate so Nixon replaced him with Ford o US public never voted for Ford but now he was president o To make sure he was never popular: he pardoned Nixon for Watergate Regan (1980) Completes New Right Starts talk of ‘family values’ o What were family values? War on drugs (wanted them drug free) Tended to isolate drugs that were used by minorities Harsher penalties for drug possession o Ex) crack cocaine (punished more severely than regular cocaine) Overturning Roe v. Wade o ’73 case that legalized abortion in all states Reganomics o Trickle down economics (money given to wealthy via tax cuts at the top and goes down) ’89 Berlin wall is torn down (Gorbachev) Soviet Union has collapsed Soviet leader has given into democratic reforms ’90 US entered into gulf war (Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait) young prince saw them on land he viewed as holy land for Muslims (Osama Bin Laden) who was a radical Muslim and was enraged so devoted the next few decades of his life to attack the sinful, non- Muslim, US 90s are only decades with no depression or war since the ‘20s