wk april 12th
wk april 12th 101- Communications
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Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by tanillemonica on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101- Communications at Boston University taught by Tammy vigil in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see The World of Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at Boston University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
April 12 Explaining influence Using Purpose of communication Inform Entertain Persuade *each is a form of influence & influence is understood Via communication research loads to communication theories* Influence is measured through research- then develops theories All theories are explanations A lot of research, data, experience behind it All humans are theory builders Communication theories - explain communication phenomena *so we do not need to rethink everything every time, we are efficient* - can & should guide message creation - should guide ethical communication Good - Should explain: how to… Ancient theory: Aristole Inartistic proofs (evidence existing outside the message) - Brought into message to strengthen it - Already exist somewhere else Stats Quotes Interviews Artistic proofs (created though the message) - Ethos: credibility/ trust Ex: celeb, uniform, professional looking Credibility - Competence Topic Communicative - Attractiveness Likability - Power Formal Informal Integrity *Ethos is always created through message but never assume it is always established* - Pathos: emotion/ values Ex: stories, inspirational, vivid language, anything sexualized *Easiest way to get people to act is to get them to feel- have corresponding emotions to action- we only stay active when emotion is sustained* - Logos: logic/reasoning: Logic is a subject of reasoning Ex: Experts, Stats, structure of speech (Intro, body, conclusion) *if get ppl thinking then using logos* Pathos & Logos ride on ethos Ethos, Pathos, Logos combined Ex1: Michael Jordan commercial Failure can propel you forward- only if you don’t give up - Statistics Aristotelian Proofs in journalism Ex2: Alexis Khan Pathos coming in through inartistic proof - Voice recording Ethos: parents evidence: dog+ mom’s intuition+ voice recording Artistic & Inartistic proofs in entertainment Ex3: Wisconsin Primaries Pathos: sarcasm/ humor Gets to pathos though logos: contrast of absurdity>> logic= humor - Using bad logos= good pathos (humor highlighted) Contemporary theory - Cognitive dissonance (CD) - Agenda setting (AS) - Framing - Priming - Cultivation CD Cognitive connect: Consonant Dissonant No relationship We seek consonance Reasoning Rationalizing Changing cognitions Changing behavior Persuasive strategy: create dissonance then offer means for restoring consonance We have dissonance as humans we strive to achieve/restore consonance (connection/relationship) CD in action Ex: Children smoking -aggravate dissonance: so why are you smoking Dissonance= can cause psychological pain *Dissonance can be effective persuasive method Ex2: The daily show (skip to 5:00) - Extending the idea of pro-life to (being anti- abortion) and into pro-every life Highlighting a disconnect & creating a connect Communication Theories (cont) -Explaining influence- Agenda setting - Attention implies importance - Amount of coverage - Placement - Repetition *does not tell us what to tell but encourages us to think more about certain topic* - Attention influences what we should think about - Attention enhances perceived topic salience Agenda Setting Theory (The topic= important) - More attention= more we consider important=the more we pay attention Ex: coverage of GOP candidates Agenda Setting Theory (Trump) - Amount of attention - Motivation o coverage But whose agenda is it? Media, public, govt? Ex: kidnapping, fears, terrorism, concern, Kony 2002, ALS Ice Bucket challenge #Trending= agenda setting Pop culture Agenda Setting- Magazine covers (Cosmopolitan) Are you actually interested? Well you should be Framing - Setting parameters of discussion Set limits & draws attention- influences how we interpret - Alter conversations based on what is in or out of frame - Influences how we think about a subject by chanign the way we perceive salient points Ex: setting parameters of discussion: climate change Ex: framing driftgate - Overtly sexual references- judging/ criticizing the masculinity of the New England patriots Boston Herald – Why do they hate us? *Anytime you create need to choose lens/ frame- the way in which something will be perceived Ex: political frames, insiders V. Outsiders, Trump, Hillary, Cruz, Kasek, Sanders, frames they have placed upon them & we have laced upon them Priming - Piquing interest - Establishing expectations - Offers interpretive frame before full is presented - Based on the elements highlighted Ex: when harry met Sally (horror mix V original trailer) Priming: music text show, visuals shown, etc.- prepares audience beginning to interpret: setting the mood Cultivation - Assumptions about reality are based on repeated messages (mediated) – growing an attitude - Lived experience overrides mediated ALWAYS - We influence perceptions of reality through depictions of the world around us - Don’t have to b focal point of the message- sideline/ background info - Contributes to perceptions - Began w/ mean world syndrome studies Mean world syndrome (MWS) - Began w studies of news consumers - Higher consumption of news assumed the world was meaner/more dangerous - Not limited to news: ppl who watch more tv: assume the same - Why? Driven my conflict (storyline) - And online interactions Cultivation impacts: - Body image/ body acceptance - Perception of unfamiliar processes - The CSI effect: misconstrued definition of beyond a reasonable doubt IRL
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