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Biology- week of April 17

by: Emma Shoupe

Biology- week of April 17 BIOL 1030

Emma Shoupe
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover classes from Tuesday, April 19, and Thursday, April 21.
Organismal Biology
Dr. Djibo Zanzot
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Shoupe on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Djibo Zanzot in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 04/22/16
Biology 1030 Week of April 17  Class Cephalopoda o Squid, octopus, nautilus, cuttlefish o “head foot” o mantle forms body tube o arms and tentacles o pen (secreted by mantle) o chambered nautilus (external shell secreted by mantle) shell with siphuncle o chambered nautilus means it has “chambers” or rooms inside with each spiral o siphuncle – pumps gas into or out of the shell of the nautilus  used to go up and down Lophophorates  Phylum Phoronida o Marine o Chitinous tube dwelling o Wormlike o U- shaped gut  Phylum Ectoprocta o Marine and freshwater o “anus outside of ring” o AKA Bryozoa o “moss animals” o colonial o zooid within zooecia (s. zooecium (calcium carbonate structure))  Phylum Brachiopoda o “lampshells” o marine o 2 calcified shells – each symmetrical but upper different from lower o some with pedicel o many fossil species Superphylum: Ecdysozoa  Phylum Nematoda o Roundworms o Diverse, abundant, ubiquitous o Parasitic in plants and animals o Free-living and marine, freshwater, and terrestrial o Longitudinal muscles only o Vinegar eels o Most famous – Caenorhabditis elegans AKA C. elegans  Tiny (< 1 mm)  Simple; almost harmless  One of the first genomes to be mapped  Phylum Nematomorpha o Gordian worms, horsehair worms o From Gordian knot o Parasitic larvae o Non-feeding as adults o Vestigial digestive tract  Phylum Arthropoda o Largest, most diverse of all phyla, >80% of all species o Range from < 0.1 mm to 7 feet o Abundance and broad ecological distribution o Rich fossil record o Economic importance: food, pollination, honey, wax, silk, drugs, dyes o Parasites, disease transmission, agricultural and domestic pests o Protosome eucoelomates o Metameric “through parts” (segmented) o Tagmosis = body arrangement, parts = tagmata o Jointed appendages o Exoskeleton = complex cuticle o Protein + lipid + chitin (+ calcium carbonate) – secreted by epidermis o Ecdysis, exuvium – shell left behind (molting) o Complex musculature – smooth and striated o Circulatory system – heart, arteries, hemocoel, open o Nervous system – antennae, eyes (ocellus and compound) o Respiration – cutaneous, gills, book gills, book lungs, tracheae o Reproduction – dioecious, usually internal fertilization o Oviparous or ovoviviparous – lay eggs or eggs hatch inside of mother o Metamorphosis in some  Subphylum Trilobita o All extinct by end of Permian era (~ 250 MYA) o Tagmata – head, thorax, abdomen  3 lobed abdomen o Branched (biramous) appendages  Subphylum Chelicerata o Chelicerst  1 pair appendages  major mouth parts o ancestrally chelate (hand like), but maybe fangs, needle-like o 2 nd pair appendages = pedipalps o 4 pairs of legs o no antennae o tagmosis = cephalothorax, abdomen/ prosoma, opisthosoma  Class Merostomata  “living fossils”  similar to forms that existed over 200 MYA  simple and compound eyes  book gills  chelate, chelicerate, and other chelate appendages  telson (tail)  -Xiphosora (sword tail) o helps it flip when waves crash into it  AKA horseshoe crabs  Class Pycnogonida  “sea spiders”  all marine  predators and external parasites on Cnidarians  sucking proboscis  reduced abdomen, organs within legs  males carry eggs on modified legs (ovigers)  Class Arachnida  Spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks, vinegaroons  Tailless whipscorpions, daddy long legs, pseudoscorpions  Most are predacious (parasites, detritivores)  Some are venomous o Order: Araneae  Spiders  Chelicerae = fangs with venom  Silk produced from spinnerets  Males mate with pedipalps o Order: Scorpiones  Scorpions  Chelate pedipalps  Metasoma with sting  Vaejovis carolinensis – only local species o Order: Acari  Mites o Order: Opiliones  Daddy long legs o Subphylum Crustacea  Marine, freshwater, terrestrial  2 pair antennae (unique)  branched appendages (biramous)  mandibles (jaw like mouth parts)  tagmosis = cepholothorax + abdomen  Class Crustacea o Order: Maxillopoda  Ostracods  Barnacles o Order: Malacostraca  Isopods  Amphipods  Krill  Decapods (crab, lobster, things we eat) o Subphylum Uniramia  Uniramous appendages  Mandibles  1 pair antennae  Class Chilopoda  Predaceous  Posion claws  1 pair legs/segment  tagmosis = head + trunk  Class Diplopoda  Detritivores  2 pairs of legs per diplosegment (fused together)  repugnatorial glands  Class Insecta  Over 1 million described species  Tagmosis = head + thorax + abdomen  0, 1, or 2 pair wings  3 pairs of walking legs  ametabolous – egg – immature - adult o silverfish, springtails, etc  hemimetabolous – egg – nymph (or naiad) – adult o bugs, grasshoppers, roaches, dragonflies  homometabolous – egg – larva – pupa – adult (imago) o flies, beetles, wasps, butterflies  wings and legs connect to thorax  dragonfly and butterfly not a true fly; house fly is a true fly (space, 2 words)  Seven big orders o Order: Odonata  Dragonflies and damselflies o Order: Orthoptera  Grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids o Order: Hemiptera  “true bugs”  X marks bug – X on thorax = wings partly hardened (overlapping) o Order: Coleoptera  Beetles  Wings used for protection, under wings more membraneous (meet in center) o Order: Diptera  Flies  1 pair of wings  halters – balance in flight (look like little drumsticks) o Order: Hymenoptera  Bees, wasps, ants  Care for young  Elaborate nests (colonies) o Order: Lepidoptera  Butterflies and moths  Scales (colors) – tiny projections  Phylum Cycliophora o Discovered in 1995 o Lobster parasites o Mouth ringed with cilia o Complex life cycle with strange dwarf male Echinodermata  Secondarily radially symmetric deuterostomes  “spiny skin”  all marine  pentamerous radial symmetry  endoskeleton formed of calcareous plates within integument = dermal ossicles  pedicellariae  oral/aboral axis (aboral surface usually up)  dermal branchiae (respiration)  little sensory development, no head  automy and regeneration  water vascular system  Class Asteroidea o Sea stars, starfish o 5 arms or multiples of 5 o most are predatory o pyloric and cardiac (eversible) stomachs o tube feet, within ambulacral groove, used for locomotion o pedicellariae o 1 arm plus 1/5 of central disc – can regenerate entire body o Asterias spp.  Class Ophiuroidea o Brittle stars, serpent stars, basket stars – largest class o Central disc o Long, slender arms o Closed ambulacral groove o Tube feet used in feeding o Grasp food with arms or filter feed o Locomote  Class Echinoidea o Urchins, sand dollars, sea biscuits o Dermal ossicles fused –test o Moveable spines o Pedicellariae o 5- holed sand dollar


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