Japan 50 Week 2 Notes
Japan 50 Week 2 Notes JAPAN 50
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabel Yin on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JAPAN 50 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Caleb Carter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
Japan50 Spring2016 INSTRUCTOR:ProfessorCarter 4 April 2016 Asuka Period (592 - 710) ● Site of Yamato Court during most of the 7th century ● Main historical events ○ 645: Coup d’etat against Soga ○ 663: Defeat of Paekchon River - at risk of invade, from your own means of defense ○ 672: Jinshin War ● Other groups that manipulated the court is a recurring pattern in Japanese history ● These events contributed to state formation ● Ritsuryo ● Don’t have a permanent capital yet but there’s a congregation of emperors who pass on their lineage ● An imperial kingdom poem composed when the Heavenly Sovereign he climbed Mt. Kagu and looked upon the land ● Tenji and Tenmu are emperor’s balance between Earth and Heaven ● Geographically and spatially establishing himself as emperor, some experts say it’s a ritual | Mt. Kagu is really just a hill, positioned in terms of having the emperor to climb up Yamato Emperors - wooden tablets - mokkan ● Used as official diplomacy as a form of communication ● Ideal that leaders came to aggregate to the capital, reference dew blanket the landscape and emperor overseeing the realm 1 Location of Asuka, near Osaka ● Nara court - first capital built, but not clear how much power the court had since the archipelago is limited ● Buddhist temples funded by major uji or emperor - new form of knowledge, architecture giving them important power Fujiwara Palace ● The Takamatsuzuka Period - 1960s discovered, given size it’s probably a high ranking official ● West Wall, Byakko Tiger, East Wall, Seiryu, North Wall (Genbu - Dark Warriors) ● Ceiling - Daoist Emperor revolve the sky - constellations resemblance as close to the heavens ● The Kitora Tomb - Important mythological animals symbolizes the emperor ● Koguryo Kangso Tomb, Hyomun (Dark Dragon), Peokho (White Tiger) ● Monmu’s accession - Imperial symbols in memorializing ancestorship Buddhism ● Founder: Siddharta Guatama (4th - 5th century B.C.E) ○ Aka the Buddha (the awakened one) or Sakyamuni “wise man of the Sakyo tribe ○ Lived in Northern India / Southern Nepal ● Spread: Silk Road trade routes (land and sea) ● China: Han dynasty | Korean Peninsula 4th century | Japan 6th century ● 4 truths ○ 1. Suffering - life is suffering - birth, sickness, aging, death ○ 2. Cause of suffering - attachment or repulsion to things, ignorance ○ 3. Stopping (suffering can cease - nirvana) realize true nature of existence ○ 4. Path (leads out of suffering) Asuka Temple, Horyuji - Part of the Imperial Family, Yakushiji (grants healing power) 2 ● Buddhist priests, pagoda is where they store Buddha’s image ● Mahayana - more than 1 buddhist ● Court - appointed ranks 647 - 701 capital was spatially organized in terms of ranks, how close you are to central power ● Upper aristocracy dress, diet: not a lot of meat, with seasonal food Nara Period - capital modeled and imitated from a typical chinese city (710 - 794) ● Main historical events ○ 712 Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters) ○ 718 Yoro Codes promulgated ○ 720 Nihon Shoki (Chronicles of Japan) ○ 735 - 737 0 smallpox epidemic ○ 752 - Dedication of Todaiji Buddha ○ 794 - move of capital of Heian (Kyoto - more long lasting period) ● Effective Tax System and government ● Nara’s capital is significant because it was the first capital intended to be permanent ● Heijo Capital Reconstruction - the emperor is situated North while overlooking the southside towards his people ● Kojiki Manuscript - provides lineage of imperial family and uji, they descend from Gods and divine lineage, way of establishing the order, descendants family, compiled in 712 afterwards ● Nihonshoki - was the official history of the court ● Amaterasu Cave Scene, Susano-o & the Dragon (Sun God), Yamato the Brave and the Kumaso Brave, Izanaki and Izanami ● Todaiji, Main Hall, emperor that has first direct link in state power and that power has no limits, provinces include the small buddhas ● Kokin Wakashu ○ Presented to Emperor Daigo in 905 ○ Main compiler: Kino Tsurayuki ○ Twenty volumes, 1111 poems 3 ○ Composed in thematic and imagery, continued influence till 19th century ○ Became the essential classic of Heian poetry ○ Creating style for the court ○ Season linked to different emotions Heian Period (794 - 1185) ● Heian is the name of the capital city, known as now Kyoto ● Writing system developed ● Main events ○ 858 Fujiwara no Yoshifusa assumes title of regent ○ 995 - 1027 Fujiwara no Michinaga controls court ○ 1068 - 1160 Ruled by retired emperors (Imperial court tried to re-establish their power) ○ 1159 - 1185: Taira clan controls capital ● the Fujiwara lineage ○ Marriage politics - assert state politics in a boarder range, able to control the court ○ The posts of regent and chancellor - ruler on behalf of child emperors until they turn older and ruler on behalf of grown emperor ○ Oppositions between imperial family and emperor ○ Emperor slowly faded into a more symbolic symbol ● Fujiwara no Michinaga (966 - 1027) ○ Controlled court from 995 until death ○ Uncle to two emperors and grandfather to three The economy ● Public land and private estates (shoen system) ○ Private estates are exempt from taxes and immune from inspection ○ Privatization of estates enriches government bureaucrats and reduces influence and power of state ○ By the end of the Heian period, half of Japan’s land is private - depleting government’s resources 4 ○ All estate owners are living in the capital lavishly, signifies high society ○ Labor of these states was also seen as a slave system The Era of Cloistered Emperors ● Retired emperors became real power behind Fujiwara ministers ● Competition between multiple factions and retired emperors evolved ● Involvement of warrior clans: Taira (Heike) and Minamoto (Genji) ● Fujiwara lost their power to monopolize the court while member of the courts gave land ● Different positions are formed to act in control as an emperor ○ 1. Fujiwara regent and Chancellor ○ 2. Imperial family emperor forming new positions ○ 3. Create a new emperor Heian Buddhism ● Tendai - Founder in Saicho, center is Mount. Hiei, Main text: Lotus Sutra - most important scripture in Asia ● Shingon ○ founder is Kukai, center is Mt. Koya, main text is Mahavairocana (Dainichi) Sutra ○ Awakening in this bodily existence ○ Esoteric practices: mudras, mantras, and mandalas ● Pure Land (pietism) - multiple schools, faith in Amida (Buddha of Infinite Light) chanting of Nenbutsu ● Enryakuji, Tendai Head Temple Heian Writing ● Chinese writing (Kanbun): the international writing system of east asia ○ All official governmental documents ○ Chinese poetry and diaries ● Kana writing: used for vernacular writing in Heian courth ○ Japanese poetry ○ Kana writing 5 The Pillow book (Makura no soshi) ● Sei Shonago - lady in waiting to Empress Teishi ● Finished around 1005 and focused on Teishi’s salan, circa 993 - 994 ● Three types of forms: lists, essays and diaries Heian literature ● Chinese poetry (shi, kanshi) ● Japanese poetry (uta, waka) ○ Kokin Wakashu - ancient and modern japanese poetry collection ● Women’s literature ○ Diaries (nikki) and other writings ○ Tales (monogatari) ● Tale of Genji ○ Murasaki Shikibu - lady in waiting to Empress Shoshi ○ Genji means “of the Minamoto clan” ○ The fictional story of a successful challenge to Fujiwara dominance ○ Sense of early art work ○ Biwa - arrangement with other Flutes, Taiko ○ Sho (mouth organ) Discussion week 2 The Pillow book - Sei Shonago and Kojiki ● Makura no Soshi - Sei Shonago - daughter of Kiyohara no Motosuke, noted waka poet and editors of Gosenshu, her name is unknown ● Empress Teishi (daughter of Michitaka and sister and Korechika) briefly had emperor’s favor, rival of Murasaki shikibu (writer of Tale of Genji) The Pillow Book Considered one of the twin pillars of Heian vernacular court literature and is seen as a memorial to the author’s patron, a homage to the Naka no Kanpaku family and a literary prayer to the spirit of the deceased empress Teishi 6 ● 300 discrete sections of the book are lists, essays, and diaries while the lists described noun sections and focussed on poetic and nature topics and essays were adjective sections that describe a state or emotion, stories heard were from one’s master or mistress and the knowledge of cultivation about aristocratic women’s education, need for aesthetic awareness as well as erudition, refinement in communication, often read as a personal record of accommodation of accomplishments ● Noted for distinct prose style: rhythmic, quick-moving, compressed, and varied sentences - free flowing yet artistic prose writing ● End with nouns and eliminate the exclamatory and connective particle = heian women literature characteristics ● Neglected during its period but gained popularity in Edo Tokugawa Period ● It displayed literary skill, casual thought, entertainment, memoir/recollections of day-to-day court life, gossip and communication between courtians ● It’s a form of waka poetry that has a 5-7-5-7-7 syllable structure and is a predecessor of Haiku poetry Kojiki ‐ record of ancient matters commissioned by Emperor Tenmu, O no Yasumaro by 712 ● Mythology and history in 3 volumes, starting with creation of Japan in the age of the gods and the descent to earth of the ancestor of the imperial family through the reign of the legendary first sovereign ● Izanagi and Izanami, create the islands of Japan, gave birth to gods of various phenomenon ● Yamato emperors were thought to be descendants of the heavenly gods entitled to rule the Earth and it is important because it places on the power of speech ● Explain divine power of emperor and geographical areas ● Important in Heian Period but has lost importance until 18th century ● Uji - god’s also referring to them, important because you want to please other people ● One of the oldest extant written documents of ancient Japan ● Yamato’s conquest of Izumo - hidden political meaning ● Izanagi and Izanami - creator of Japan, Amaterasu - sun God and Susano-o 7 ● Susano-o killed a serpent and draws out a sword that became symbol of emperor ● Ninigi no Mikoto ● Yamato Takeru - unified Japan, not important until 18th century 8
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