Nutrition 101 Chapter 1 Notes
Nutrition 101 Chapter 1 Notes Nutrition 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Counce on Wednesday February 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Nutrition 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lori Greene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 302 views.
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Date Created: 02/25/15
Rachel Counce Exam 1 Nutrition Chapter 1 An Overview of Nutrition Nutrition Food and Diet Nutrition the science of nutrients in foods and their actions within the body 0 Nutrients actions within the body include ingestion digestion absorption transport metabolism and excretion 0 Also refers to human behaviors related to food and eating 0 Nutrition is both a pure science and social science Diet a food and beverages a person eats 0 Our society does not use this simple definition Food the products from plants and animals 0 When food is taken into the body it yields energy and nutrients for growth and maintenance Factors In uencing Food Choices 0 Preferences Habit Cultural and ethnicity Social interactions Availability and convenience Income Positive and negative food associations Emotions Values Body weight and image Health benefits OOOOOOOOOO Energy and Nutrients Energy 0 Energy in food is chemical energy Nutrients 0 Chemical substances obtained from food 0 Used in the body to provide energy and to support growth maintenance and repair of tissues 0 No single food provides all the nutrients the body needs to function Six Major Classes of Nutrients o Carbohydrates 0 Proteins Rachel Counce 0000 Exam 1 Lipids fats Vitamins Minerals Water Categories of Nutrients O O 0 Essential nutrients must be obtained by foods there are about 40 Nonessential nutrients can be synthesized by the body Nonnutrients compounds that do not fit into the six classes of nutrients 2 Phytochemicals nonnutrient compounds in plants that have biological activity in the body Energy Yielding Nutrients O O O O Commonly referred to as macronutrients large amounts daily Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids fats Vitamins and Minerals 0 O O O O Commonly referred to as micronutrients small amounts daily Vitamins and minerals do not provide energy They may assist with the energy release process Vitamins are organic and complex and can be destroyed Minerals are inorganic and indestructible 2 They can bind or hinder absorption or leach into water Measuring Energy in Food 0 O O O O Calories are units used to measure energy Food energy is measured in kilocalories kcal 1000 calories 1 kcal Consumers refer to quotcaloriesquot in general 1 kilocalorie energy required to raise 1 kg of water to 1 oC Calories are useful in comparing the energy available from different foods when we are decided what foods to eat Energy from Food Carbohydrates 4kcal gm Proteins 4kcalgm Lipids fats 9kcalgm Alcohol 7kcalgm Note alcohol contributes energy but is not considered a nutrient Energy calorie Density vs Nutrient Density 0 Energy density measure of the energy a food provides relative to the weight of the food Rachel Counce Exam 1 0 Nutrient density measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the weight of the food Nutrition Calculations The following are sample calculations Please reread your lecture notes review questions covered in class and text material for additional help with calculations Remember Carbohydrate amp Protein both yield 4 kcal gram Fat yields 9 kcal gram 1 A slice of cheese is 100 kcals and has 3 grams of fat How many kcals in the cheese come from fat 3g x 9 kcal 27 kcals from fat 2 Calculate grams carbohydrate in a 1500 kcal meal plan if planning 60 of kcalories from carbohydrate can be done for all macronutrients 1500 x 60 900 kcals from carbohydrate To get grams carbohydrate 9004 225 grams carbohydrate 3 You plan a 2000 kcalorie weight reduction diet plan for your healthy 35yo female client The diet you planned contains 55 kcals from carbohydrates 20 kcals from protein and 25 kcals from fat Calculate the kcals and grams of each macronutrient your client should be eating on this regimen 2000x55 11004 1100 kcals from Carbohydrate 275 grams Carbohydrate 2000 x 20 4004 400 kcals from Protein 100 grams Protein 2000 x 25 5009 500 kcals from Fat 56 grams Fat Rachel Counce Exam 1 4 On a client s food record you note that he consumed an entire Totino s Combination Pizza nutrition facts label below How many total Calories did he consume 370 x 2 740 Calories How many Calories from protein did he consume from the entire pizza 12g x 2 2 Servings 2 24g Total x 4 96 Calories from Protein food label not included Dietary Reference Intakes DRI Encompass 4 types of nutrient recommendations Estimated Average Requirements EAR Average requirement of nutrients for healthy individuals Only used to access H h ll f a a 39 Ila person s usual intake falls above nutrlent adequacy of g a the RDA the intake is probably Pquot g adequate because the RDA covers p Opmatlons l the needs of almost all people Recommended Dietary Allowances RDA A usual Intake that falls between the Intake RDA and the EAR is more dif cult to Amount Of HUtrlent HCCded 39poSslbly assess the intake maybe adequate but to meet the requirements of inadequate the chancesare greatet or equal that It is inadequate almost all healthy individuals 9798 Serve as a goal intake of individuals not populations Adequate Intake AI Nutrient recommendation based on observed or experimentally determined approximation Sufficient scientific W evidence is not available to calculate RDA or EAR Usual intake of nutrient X unitsldayl If the usual Intake falls below the EAR it is probably inadequate Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL Highest level of daily nutrient intake that is unlikely to have adverse health effects Rachel Counce Exam 1 Establishing Energy Recommendations 0 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges AMDR ranges of intakes for energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce the risk of chronic diseases 4565 kcal from carbohydrate 2035 kcal from fat 1035 kcal from protein Estimated Energy Requirement EER represents the average dietary energy intake that will maintain energy balance in a person who has a healthy body weight and level of activity Using Nutrient Recommendations 0 00000 DRIs apply to most healthy people Recommendations are not minimal requirements They may not meet all individuals needs Nutrient goals should be met with food Recommendations apply to average daily intakes You may not meet the nutrient recommendations everyday Nutrient recommendations misunderstandings 1 Estimates of adequate energy and nutrient intakes apply to healthy people 2 Recommendations are not minimal requirements nor are they always optimal for all 3 Most nutrient goals are based on diets composed of a variety of foods 4 Recommendations apply to average daily intake 5 Each of the DRI categories serves a unique purpose most appropriately used for group Nutrition Information and the Registered Dietitian How do we get our information 0 O O 2 out of 3 adults use the Internet to look up health information 2 Health related topics are the most common topic searched Friends or colleagues Health information in the media Health Information in the Media 0 0 Consumers get a lot of information on the Web newspapers magazines etc Media outlets often times only tell part of the story Rachel Counce Exam 1 o Commonly report on one research study which is only one piece of the puzzle 0 Consumers end up confused and see many contradictions Best Source of Nutrition Information 0 Qualified nutrition professionals gt Registered dietitians gt Some physicians 0 Research studies 2 Double blind randomized control trial is gold standard 2 Don t take what just one study says look at multiple studies or find review articles Registered Dietitian o Bachelor s degree from an accredited college university 1200hour internship Must pass the national registered dietitian exam Maintain continuing education credits every 35 years Most states also require licensure OOOO Conducting Research Observation question 9 hypothesis prediction 9experiment 9 results 9 theory Conducting research unbiased and accurate Controls Sample size Placebos Double blind How to tell if a nutritional media ad is reliable 1 Does the author have credentials 2 Is the website or article known for being credible Ex org gov edu 3 Why are they providing the information To sell most likely not credible 4 Does the message contradict anything else you have heard 5 Does the message tell you to take extreme measures Ex eliminate a food group or lose 10 pounds in a week Rachel Counce Exam 1 Determine whether a source is reliable 0 Who is providing the information 0 Where is the information coming from 0 Why are they providing this information Does the person sell promote the product 0 What is the message Does it contradict other sources 0 Does the message tell you to eliminate entire groups of foods Red Flags 0 The diet or product claims to be natural 0 Quick and easy fixes if it sounds too good to be true it probably is 0 One product or food does it all ex grapefruit diet 0 Lack of scientific proof 0 Lack of qualified professional providing the information
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