Week 2 Lecture Notes: Renaissance Art
Week 2 Lecture Notes: Renaissance Art 0302-1040
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geneva Trovato on Wednesday February 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 0302-1040 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Mr. Christopher Nygren in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see Renaissance Art in Fine arts at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 02/25/15
Renaissance Arts Notes January 13th and 15th 2015 O 90 O 90 O 9 Refer to Italian Renaissance Art by Stephen J Campbell and Michael W Cole textbook for this course January 13th s notes will cover Florence circa 1400 and will correspond with pages 50 to 64 and 72 to 82 January 15th s notes will cover Masaccio Masolino and the Emergence of Perspective and will correspond with pages 90 to 190 While looking at these notes you must look at the actual pictures that are listed throughout the document to understand what I m taking notes on Before each exam I will list all the important pieces of art with their artists year and signi cance and that must be studied Seam that goes around gures darker color than the washed out blue Fresco painting while plaster is still wet Giornata refers to one day s work most commonly on a fresco Human faces and gures take up more time than architecture During this time period the revival of Rome is going on begins in 1300 with Pope Boniface Vlll he declares a jubilee all debt no longer exists wipes everything free Rome is a symbol possess things that you cannot get anywhere else in the world Veronica hands Jesus a handkerchief when he is carrying the cross supposedly Jesus left his face imprint on the handkerchief Boniface believes that Veronica will bring pilgrims to Rome Santa Sanctorum holiest place has objects from the Holy Land cemented into the box also has the quotAcheropiaquot image not made by human hands portrait ofJesus people kiss it and rub it only Jesus face is shown body covered by panel The idea ofJesus from the neck up no body is now resurfaced in many other paintings body of Christ does not exist because it was taken up into heaven In the city of Rome there are now two portraits ofJesus Pietro Cavallini Lastudgment Virgin and Child beginning to try and change nature of medevial icons more perspective more realistic trying to update medieval images for the pigrims that will be coming to Rome Jesus and Mary leave behind pictures of themselves goes against old testament but because Jesus was in the new testament its ok Giotto quotInterior of the Arena Chapelquot manages to maintain 3D and rootedness but he also manages to inject these gures with motion Giotto The Expulsion of joachim from the Temple 13031305 Joachim is kicked out of the temple and not allowed to make a sacri ce because he has no children steps out into the vacantness an wilderness shown by the blank brown space surrounding the temple Giotto Lamentation Jesus lying after being cruci ed on the cross depicted as heavy and weighing a lot because he has just died Mary and other people holding him Giotto Ognissanti Maesta 1310 struck by how massive Mary seems due largely to the fact that she is surrounded and encompassed by dainty architecture halos from the angels are not just imagined but they are actually there very real gives this image threedimensionality The city of Sienna although smaller than Florence is better connected via francigena which is a major pilgrim route leads to their good political system quotAllegory of Good Governmentquot shows government that Sienna is trying to establish roots Duccio RucceIai Madonna 1285 the Virgin here is much more dainty than Giotto s Maesta shoulders neck hands are much different hands are long and spindly showing that Duccio is deeply rooted in medieval tradition Duccio s angels are separated and spaced so that the halo of one angel meets up with the foot of the angel above it more emphasis on ornamentation Giotto s throne for the Virgin is much more sturdy thus emphasizing her massiveness Duccio s throne emphasizes the daintiness of Mary due to its fragile frame and structure Simone Martini with Lippo Memmi Annunciation 1333 Gabriel telling Mary that she will have a child Mary is frightened if you look closely there are words coming out of Gabriel s mouth looking as it they will hit Mary Mary covers her mouth and ear to protect her from Gabriel s words which will tell her that she will have a child emphasizes that ears become the place of conception once he speaks those words and she hears them she will become pregnant Giotto s Annunciation is very different from Martini s Gabriel garments show more of a body and ure Mary is looking straight at Gabriel instead of turning away shows that Martini is developing his own style Virgin Mary elected queen of Sienna Martini s Maesta Virgin Mary is under a canopy physically protecting and symbolically showing her title and importance images serves as a calling card for the regions of the Siennese empire Jesus holds a scroll written on it is a passage of scriptures of the proverbs quotLove justice you that are the judges of the earthquot Fact that this is written on parchment shows that it is almost a contract Mary is quite different from various other painted Mary s she has a more oval head she does not have much shading has a crown on you can see her hair her hair was almost NEVER depicted it follows the paradigms of fashionable women it had become very stylish to have long hair Martini is injecting Mary s image with courtly values very subtle differences from the other Virgins but very radical Masaccio Baptism of the Nephrites In 1400 we get the announcement of the competition of the bronze doors have to come with a design for the story of Isaac foreshadows Christ father loves so much that he lets him be put to death shows panel of rebirth of medieval art Competition panel for the doors Ghiberti and Brunelleschi what distinguishes each from the other imitation of aesthetic Brunellschi and gothic elegance Ghiberti his Isaac was classical with abs and strong posture Abraham was gothic had more interesting approach to space Ghiberti wins and goes onto do this set of doors that represent the birth and life of Christ Guilds like a medieval union set up rules for who can practice trade Wool Merchants and Wool Workers Life of Christ by Ghiberti is very legible very clear all of these images are legible in part they are executed in bronze and then gilded in gold very expensive this is the way that Wool Merchants were able to show how wealthy they were Nativity in Life of Christ much more complicated than the original one that had been on the door before by Andrea Pisano Life of john the Baptist Ghiberti did not want to just display the scene but demonstrate the psychological state of the participants in the story When comparing Baptism ofChrist of Ghiberti and Pisano while both accurate Ghiberti s is more legible jesus has gothic curvature revealing his nudity to gain power waters of river jordan are more owing than just standing still in the background we have all of these angels who hold Christ s garments angels show how powerful and strong a sculptor Ghiberti is Ghiberti has more depth than Pisano trying to make it as dynamic as possible pushing the limits and breaking the frame Wool Workers are tasked with decorating the facade and bell tower of the cathedral nally in the early 14005 the building is complete the dome has not been nished Donatello Marble David this was going to be put up on the facade but never was and ended up at City Hall David looks very young kills the giant Goliath through his own genius and the hand of God hits Goliath in the head with a rock prototype of the weak defeating the strong Milano wages war against Florance from 1400 to 1410 Milan thinks they will lose but end up pulling through underdog basically by 1410 David has become a symbol for Milan By the time Marble David is nished 14151416 they decide that it is too beautiful and intricate a piece to go atop a building so high that no one will really see instead goes to City Hall inscribed on base To the Fatherland still struggling against terrible enemies Let God lend his help Donatello Prophet Habakkuk understands that he cant do such an intricate piece instead takes a difference approach for the bell tower does not carve pupils suggestion of a beard but its not actually carved out in any detail he knows that the eye not be able to pick up on small detail from far away and will instead be able to pick up light and shadow so he caters his statue to that classi es him as a radical innovator Donatello 5t john the Evangelist works with light and shade he has a beard however sculpted in thick chunks taken a very thin piece of marble and made it look very 3 dimensional and realists if you look at it from any position besides the position it was made for it looks deformed the idea that you can take St John the Evangelist and sculpt him in a deformed way in a service to make it convincing to the beholder Orsanmichele Bottom oors became a church very large All of a sudden in the year 1400 if you do not produce a statue for the niche you have been given in 10 years then it will be given away to the chair makers and humble guilds that nobody takes seriously From 1400 to 1415 we see a radical approach to the way the guilds take their space they are competitive and want to show off how they are each great This becomes a monumental project Donatello St Mark done for the guild of linen merchants 1411 1413 Nanni di Banco Quattro Coronati for the Guild of Sculptors and Carpenters able to put multiple gure in the niche carves out a semicircular space to make their positioning more logical they are very compressed gure protrude out of the space of the niche down below the guilds put forward their own presence predellaspace below Some guilders decide that they don t want to make mythological gods and will only make sculptures of Christ put to death they become patron saints of every sculptor In Roman culture your old age showed virtue Nanni di Banco show this with aged faces on his sculptures Donatello St George who is the patron saint of the armor men sculpted for the guild of armor makers 1415 holding a shield that takes a signi cant percentage of the block of marble trying to create a new model of an idealized soldiers Donatello is showing different ways of a victorwinner trying to create soldiers who represent the actual citizen army Donatello is trying to gure out ways to make his images emerge Ghiberti 5t john the Baptist 1413 to 1416 asked by the guilders to make a sculpture for the niche in the town and put the door carving on hold creates 12 foot tall sculpture takes on the gothic elegance that Ghiberti is known for gure that is all about the fabric gure that is enveloped in a mantle of cloth this gure makes a statement about how expensive the guild is all carved in bronze inset ivory eyes trying to make it as lifelike as possible the cloth merchants want to show their dominance over the other guilds when it comes to wealth and power Gentile da Fabriano Adoration ofthe Magi 1423 fully engaged with the international gothic style of painting absolute excess of gold everyone is gilded in gold patterns star owers etc not about creating 3D gures horses with collars made of gilded gold even down below in the predella patterns angel himself is clothed in gold gilding Christ in gold gilding beautiful country side is made up of gold gilding in Gesso
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