Chapter 13: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Chapter 13: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance 10613
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ronnie Sammour on Wednesday February 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 10613 at University of Houston taught by Knapp in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see Biology 1362 in Biology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/25/15
BIOL 1362 Unit 2 Chapter 13 The Molecular Basis of Inheritance o A man named revealed to us that genes were located on chromosomes 0 It was known that there were 4 nucleotides that contributed to the formation of DNA A G C T and that they occurred in equal ratios A T and G C Originally protein was believed to be the main mode of inheritance because it had more variation and could appear in many different forms compared to DNA s sequence of just 4 nucleotides 0 DNA A polymer composed of monomers called nucleotides Composed of a sugar bound to a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base Nucleotides can be broken into two groups 0 A double stranded DNA molecule consists of two strands that are meaning they are parallel to one another but run in opposite directions I quota I quot9 0 The reason behind AT and GC pairs being oriented opposite one another is to help the bases achieve optimal hydrogen bonding between one another In other words complimentary base pairs A and T G and C are paired one another on the DNA strands BIOL 1362 Unit 2 DNA replication is initiated at multiple spots referred to collectively as or for short The replication process begins as a bubble that progresses from the original sight of replication quot t 0 During replication an enzyme attaches to each existing nucleotide strand and copies it by extension adding more nucleotides to the strand DNA polymerase adds to short complimentary strands of I know this sounds confusing so let me explain in more detail Ii a 3 L r tr A E a BIOL 1362 Unit 2 DNA polymerase doesn t just plop down onto some random strand anywhere and start replicating it it starts extending bases from a little mini sequence of nucleotides called a ll H r 1 st quot391 L39 quot full lit L fl F L 3le E25113 3 L l hj JFK r 3 L mm Eaenmirf39 39grag it nail u 31 trquot ifli It needs the little primer sequence to start adding on bases what it all looks like o The picture above is a bit complicated but it illustrates something important that you really have to know Notice how the top strand is copying from right to left while the bottom one is synthesizing new DNA from left to right This happens because DNA polymerase only copies DNA in the direction of 5 9 3 We call the strand on the top the and the strand on the bottom the BIOL 1362 Unit 2 Look at where I drew the triangle with the stripes on it the point where the DNA strand separated into two That s the What does this mean On the leading strand the thing in charge of the synthesis of DNA and the same DNA polymerase I ve been talking about this whole time goes towards the fork without stopping In other words it moves across primers extending their nucleotide bases and replicating DNA continuously Tar On the lagging strand polymerase doesn t speed towards the fork like that It jumps to the left towards the fork then replicates a fragment of primers by sliding down to the right then jumps to the left and replicates by sliding back down to the right of the strand again l39 r I A 5y 5 p 2 L y m w m 143 gt 39 X Vl J 3 o is in charge of all of this BIOL 1362 Unit 2 o is another type of polymerase that removes the RNA primers and replaces them with DNA sections instead so there is no pieces of RNA left in the DNA because primers are RNA sequences After all this occurs continuous DNA molecule attaches these new sections to form a new It s worth noting that the original DNA molecule being replicated is the and the one produced is the DNA can combine after replication in a number of different fashions 1 copies of DNA come out mixed one strand from parent and one from daughter 2 The parent strands pair up and the daughter strands pair up new new old old 3 Replicated DNA is recombinant bits and pieces from both strands are mixed into one
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