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Week 1

by: Ravichandran Notetaker
Ravichandran Notetaker
GPA 3.5
Intro to Intl Affairs

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About this Document

Intro to Intl Affairs
Class Notes
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Popular in International Studies

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ravichandran Notetaker on Wednesday February 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF at George Washington University taught by 1005 in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Intro to Intl Affairs in International Studies at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 02/25/15
02262015 Anarchy Situation when there is no government or law and order of any sort Anarchy is the difference between Pol Sci and International Relations Notion of Anarchy is distinctive to International Relations sellskdwdwuedu In anarchy all states are equally sovereign However all states are not equally powerful or capable Thucydides wrote about the peopennesian wars He believed power reigned supreme in international relations Changes in relative power positions among states can cause war quotThe strong do what they have the power to do and the weak accept what they mustquot The Melian Dialogue Anarchy is a self help system States must provide for their own security External or internal means Making alliances and building up armies are examples The Security Dilemma Mutual dependence No states can disregard what other states are doing or what their actions will bring Enhancing one s security may make others feel threatened Actionreaction dynamic War is consequence of fear State actors cannot risk not reacting to security actions of other states but in reacting they can produce circumstances that leave them worse off than before Three Images Man s nature is responsible for war Nature of the state quot International system Functional similarities in all states due to birth from anarchy The Shape of Things to Come Key Factors People Population distribution movement Economics energy environment Governance strong good democratic Security intrastate transnational interstate 12 PEGS of Global affairs Population Growth 1900 16 billion people 2000 6 billion 2011 7 billion 2050 96 billion Population Distribution 97 of the world population increase will be in the developing world Developing countries population increase from 59 bn to 82 bn 60 countries are not growing or shrinking Japan Russia Many countries are ageing In 2013 25 of population in developed countries over 60 years 160 million women and girls missing worldwide 100 million women and girls are missing in Asia 1900 5 of population lived in cities 50 live in cities now 1 billion live in slums Economy 20th century Industrial output increased 40x Energy use increased 16x Water use increased 9x In last 23 years global economy has doubled Hundreds of millions have been lifted out of deep poverty Economic growth is stronger in the developing world 53 vs 13 The global economy may double again by 2030 Governance 13 of population were under colonial rule in 1939 colonial implications many states born weak arti cial states dif cult demographics New political arrangements Limited institutional capacities 120 states now have medium to strong corruption problems Democracy promotes stability Provides opportunity for people to participate in governance issues Security and Con ict 19th century 1 9 million killed 20th century 110180 million Cold War 160 armed con icts 20 million killed 1990 s 6 million killed Interstate war has decline since 1945 Mueller ls war pass He is a constructivist who feels that war is like an idea that can be changed Believes that no one likes war now Example The world rose up against Iraq when it took over Kuwait Winning the war on war Joshua Goldstein He believes in the increasing of power of the UN peacekeeping forces Steven Pinker believes that the reduction of violence over the years is because humans have evolved Models of War The Spiral model Security dilemma where there is a rapid escalation due to action reaction mechanism The Deterrence model It works when you don t have to use it Cognitive model Misperception and over estimation of capabilities The Bargaining model disagreement over Balance of power leads to war Neorealism and Causes of War Waltz was a famous realist who believed that man doesn t always lust for power but searches for security instead Morgenthau believed that man was evil and only searched for war Waltz believed that each state was an individual state actor and they had to deliver similar functions like security and that they had to pay attention to relative powers of other relative units Also each of these units lived in anarchy Collective action is difficult among units but relatively easy within them States are the most important actors in international affairs because each state has to provide for its own security Polarity States tend to balance powers in a Bipolar world Waltz believes that Multipolarity is destabilizing Because of the multi polar nature during world war I a small event in Sarajevo was responsible for the war Germany didn t expect Britain to get involved and other alliances strength was questioned so there was a lot of miscalculation Hence Multipolarity is unstable Waltz believed that Bipolarity is more stable During the Cold War expectations of the allies wasn t too high There was more certainty as to who your enemies were and much lesser interdependence Due to minimal interdependence there was very few points of con ict He also argued that nuclear weapons bred peace deterrence and MAD are stabilizing international affairs as it allows states to achieve highest levels of security without use of much force quotWar occurs because there is nothing to stop itquot quotAnarchy as Permissive Conditionquot


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