Week 7 Notes
Week 7 Notes ANTH 1004
Popular in Language in Culture and Society
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Chadwick on Thursday February 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1004 at George Washington University taught by Dent in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 351 views. For similar materials see Language in Culture and Society in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/26/15
Tuesday February 24 2015 ANTH 1004 Week 7 Lecture 1 What is the relationship between biological and social factors in child language learning Key challenges barriers from middle class White researchers impose highly specialized cultural themes they have their own predispositions OAKS AND SCHEFFLON READING Ideas are imposed on contexts that are inappropriate Blind themselves to importance of culture Governmental policy and education interest Our set of beliefs has a lot riding on it as to how children learn language Doing research on language development that fails to take into account culture can have dangerous and incorrect results Bernstein Not a linguistica anthropologist Argued in the 1960s that there are two different types of language codes that people can use Restricted Code Raised in lower class this is all you can use The meanings of the language you are employing are very strictly localized inside jokes Focuses on what Relies on unstated assumptions Tends to be redundant and repetitive Includes traditional authority Elaborated Code Used by middle and upper class Tuesday February 24 2015 Arise from situation where more things are contextual values made explicit High degree of specificity Don t need to rely on shared knowledge as much Causality how and why Much more democratic Creative complex More complex verbal choices Form of prescriptive inferiority Bernstein says that if you are raised in restricted code you can t master elaborated code you are trapped there Used by researchers and educators to show why kids are failing in school Elaborate kids can learn restricted better succeed because they have a more complex language Stakes Involved Seems to be a grain of truth on a descriptive level with Bernstein Bereiter and Englemann not linguistic anthropologists educational researchers Use codes on vernacular African American English restricted code explains why they are not doing well in school Criticized by Labov Notes that data they are collecting is happening in situations that make their hypothesis true They are collecting data in a certain way use exclusively White men to collect data clearly a problem Problems with underlying theory Original idea of Bernstein is more of a judgment that a reality Labov takes the same research and concludes that although it might appear to be restricted there is a high degree in a variation just need to know where to look for it Color Tuesday February 24 2015 15 year old African American youth asked what race God might be Labov concludes that this seems to be restricted code but just because it in not standard does not mean that there is not complex reasoning actually has high complexity lots of abstract though between religious authority and racial categories Two main approaches Berlin and Kay Basic Color Terms One is good for questions of evolution Universalism central argument is that the evolution of language took place in a way that is uniform across the species Argue that if we look at the domain of color we can see evolutionary facts Color has immediate implications for thinking about evolution All have essentially same approach to color if not the same color scheme not because language creates different universes for them If languages have different approaches to color then they are in different places on the evolutionary scale If there is only terms for black and white it is because the language is further back on the evolutionary scale Start with 98 languages and argue that there is a typology for classifying the world s languages by color If a language has two color terms it will be white and black Then add red After this it will be either green or yellow After that blue ALWAYS After that brown Lastly purple pink orange and gray Much more clearly defined set of arguments Tuesday February 24 2015 Distinction between etic and emic rise out of context you are looking at native categories Consequences of results BERLIN AND KAY READING Increasing specificity of reference ameaobe theory simple to complex Reply to Conklin Conklin Early linguistic anthropologist Proposes there is no universal color scheme needs to be language by language basis Echoes of Sapir and Whorf Doesn39t care about evolution Less good for answering questions about evolution Proposes that cultures are linguistic worlds all in themselves Whorf argues about linguistic determinism language is prior to knowledge the way you are taught to speak is the way you learn about your world Linguistic relatively don t dictate how we think but shape them Conklin notes that one problem with getting at color research is that some languages don39t have a term for color don39t objectify color in the same way over half so how do we do research Sees that color is something is influenced by wha we think to be other factors relative darkness and lightness relative presence of red and relative presence of green you can think of it as red white black and green more complex because it doest match up to our definitions of color is the same way Chromatic differentiation Noncolorimetric factors that are important here shiny not shiny freshness how fleeting something is sometimes men are better at distinguishing red and grey while women are better at distinguishing blues Tuesday February 24 2015 Many factors that we think are external are important for the Hanu to describe color How do we think about color Think about visible spectrum scientific mode 7 primary colors ROYGBIV NOT SET IN STONE Newton never mentioned orange or indigo did not add until later because of Western musical traditions We bracket out history and think of the visible spectrum not so clear where one begins and one color ends we impose that which is why we think we see them Made up of this little piece of the electromagnetic spectrum that are accessible to the human eye infrared 0007 mm to ultraviolet 004 mm slowest to fastest The objective realty of color Different languages give different names to these colors but basically the colors are the same Different info when people apply the color terms Looked at 9th graders some of objectively existing colors are hardly expressed at all orange wasn39t really used nor violet or indigo We can see that the color spectrum is not a universal We look at the spectrum in an objective way although we are not objective about it ENGLISH LANGUAGE Navajo makes no distinction between blue and green Two completely different terms for different kinds of black DIFFERENT COLORS one is for light one is for objects Russian different kinds of blue Hungary different kinds of red Japanese same word for green blue and pale depending on context New Guinea only terms for light and dark When we look at different languages we can see broad color distinctions Tuesday February 24 2015 Discussion Conklin The researchers have less knowledge of color difference his audience is other researchers SapirWhorf tradition color relativity Relative lightness darkness redness and greenness All systems of color are equally complex Spectrum Chromatic Colorimetric
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