Ch. 7 Learning
Ch. 7 Learning Psych1100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elise Parziale on Thursday February 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych1100 at Ohio State University taught by Gim Toh in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Psychology 1100 in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/26/15
Learning Ch7 Learning change in an organism s behaviour or thought as a result of experience Theories of Learning Classical Conditioning 1 When a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired With a stimulus that naturally produces a response I biological 2 Pavlov s Dogs 3 Conditioning a UnConditioned Stimulus US something that naturally produces a biological reaction b UnConditioned Response UR a re exive reaction to a stimulus c Conditioned Stimulus CS initially neutral stimulus becomes associated With UR d Conditioned Response CR learned reactionresponse US I UR UR and CR are same behaviour but brought about by different CS I CR stimuli 4 3 Phases a Acquisition learning connection b Extinction elimination of response c Spontaneous Recoverv seemingly extinct CR reappears When CS is presented again Generalization process by Which CS similar to original elicits a CR 6 Discrimination displaying a less pronounced response to CS that U differs from original CS 7 SecondOrder Conditioning developing a CR to a CS by virtue of its association With another CS 8 Survival can depend on paying attention to pairing Operant Conditioning 1 Learning controlled by consequences of an organism s behaviour 2 Law of Effect behaviours that lead to satisfaction tend to be repeated and viceversa Operant Behaviour voluntary behaviour Reinforces stimulus that increases likelihood of behaviour or Punishes stimulus that decreases likelihood of behaviour or Skinner s Box Primary and Secondary 9958 1 a Primary Reinforcement satisfies biological needs I food shelter warmth etc b Secondarv Reinforcement associated with primary reinforce through classical conditioning I money good grades etc 8 Over Justification Effect a When a behaviour stops because they were rewarded i When operant conditioning fails 9 Basic Principles a Stimulus Control i Give responses only when in appropriate context Discrimination b Extinction i Occurs when reinforcement stops ii Continuous Reinforcement 1Fixed consistency 2 Variable random iii Intermittent Reinforcement 1Ratio of behaviours 2 Interval time elapsed iv Variable ratio is most resistant to extinction I slot machines 10 Applications a Token Economv system set up for reinforcing target behaviours b Classical and operant conditioning work together to keep phobias alive i TwoProcess TheorV 1 Phobia acquired by classical conditioning 2 Phobia maintained by operant conditioning I negative reinforcement c Shaping reinforcing responses that come successively closer to desired response d Superstitious Behaviour become accidentally reinforced Observational Learning 1 Learn by watching others TBobo Doll Studv a Independent variable I if kids saw aggressive adults bDependent variable I how kids behaved 3 Diffusion Chain individuals initially learn a behaviour by observing and then serve as a model for others
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