CH 5 notes
CH 5 notes Geol 3342
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Valeska Guzmán on Thursday February 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Geol 3342 at University of Houston taught by Rappenglück in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Principles of air pollution in Environmental Science at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/26/15
Aerosol Particles in the polluted and global atmosphere Hydrometer ensemble of liquid soild or mixed phase water particles suspended in or falling through the air ex Cloud drops ice crystals raindrops snow akes and hailstorms Aerosol particles small medium and large divided on diameter number of concentration and mass concentration Hydrometeor particles fog drops cloud drops drizzle raindrops hail Gas molecules are very tiny The small the particle the larger number concentration particles per unit volume Fog is more dangerous than acid rain Nucleation mode diameter smaller than 100 nm There can be differences in the distribution of particles fine ultrafine and coarse Big line at 2 micrometers divides fine particles from coarse particles Coarse particles are mechanically generated Bubbles air formed from waterair Primary particle emited particles natural or antropogenic Ultrafine particles get inside the lungs causing harms Sea spray is always in the coarse mode Water in the atmosphere is not pure water There is more precipitation in industrial facilities Size distribution of particles mode Isoprene apinene b pinene come from tree bvoc emissons Aldehydes have oxygen Biggest change always more oxygen Nopinoneless volatile does not evaporate B pinene gt nopinene from oxidation becomes less volatile can condense in surface This happens during daylight when breathing B pinine Gas to gas particles conversion 2 emissions and homogenous nucleation Accumulation rain formation Washout needs particles to condense falling precipitation particles PM particular matter There is no sedimentation during wash out The heavier the particles the higher the possibility to deposit Particles lower than 10 nm only inhale not visible Fine particles do not grow larger than 1 nm by condensation because it is unstable it may fall apart and break apart Coarse mode does not grow in atmosphere is just emitted High solar radiation oxidation OH water vaporozoneradiation Water dipoles can easily attach to molecules leads to growth through hydration Particles provide surface area During summer there is more activity in atmosphere Smaller particles have got larger surface areas During the day there is more activity of particles During day oxidation reactions occur and hydrocarbons oxidize Increasing diameter during day leads to water vapor Homogenous nucleation gas molecules aggregate to form clusters Mode change radically over locations depend on soil properties PMlO and PM 5 dust fuel combustion and industrial Cars emit combustion Hydrocarbons oxidize in atmosphere Asbestos is prominent 50 Specific sea spraysoil dust fossil fuel How strong emission are and how far away are decoded based on samples Saharas desserts sand goes to Texas through hurricanes formed in Africa Sea Spray chlorinesodium they are released to atmosphere Exposed to ambient air Both sulfuric and nitric acid Boston LA are soluble combine with droplets in atmosphere When surrounded by dryer environment water evaporates droplet becomes smaller and solutes increase Chloride removed by sea spray acidification Sulfuric acid and nitric enter a sea spray drop and forces cl to evaporate as HCL acid Acids in fogs are higher because there is less water Forest or mountains do not like acidity heavy fog this creates dangerous drizzle More wind and higher waver more sea spray Chemical and physical weathering makes particles smaller Types of molecules in dust are being split in tinier parts that go into atmosphere Specific thermal velocity due to friction Big particles fall easily smaller ones hang around for years Dust can hang around for a while Specific shape the way wind blows Proper ow comes to Houston Minerals are transported Volcanic eruptions have higher c02 emission rates They can have different effect around equator more effective to atmosphere Most efficient eruptions occur along equator Difference between particles and gases is size Volcanoes produce coarse emissions that go into atmosphere Secondary gases ozone not emitted Primarily c02 emitted Photolysis splits molecules apart active and reactive OH Is produced from breaking apart water vapor Watersunlightbackground ozone OH Radicals OHozone NO3 they all have oxygen Ozone OH react with hydrocarbons They use oxygen this process is called oxidation Oxygen gets attached to those molecules VOC hydrocarbon alkanes alkenes cycloalkanes and alkyne based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons alkanes alkenes cycloalkanes and alkyne based compounds aromatics that do not have oxygen non methane hydrocarbons gt oxidized aldehydes gt acids what kind of properties changes those hydrocarbons Condensation what kind of VOC will condense easier volatile dipoles can attach easier to other dipoles they are less volatile Acting like glue Removal process for coarse particles sedimentation Oxidation forms and gets less volatile Surface concentration some compounds get attached and act as carrier of bad things Volcanic around equator most efficient because there is no rotation no typhoons and there is convection Along equator vertical motion high activity thunderstorms Along equator there is high tropical convection zone Strong vertical motion great thunderstorms tropopause high boundary layer Volcanos emissions will be uplifted easily Most prominent gas is water S02 prominent particle in dust and ash Particles wide range in different lifetimes Particles go to stratosphere and hang around Krakatoa largest volcanic eruption in history Lead to cooler temperatures in summer and a lot of dust in stratosphere SOZ low volatile forms particles Specific s02 larger in stratosphere due to volcanoes particles They re ect solar radiation Biomass burning wood hot air rises includes debris may carry things from soil Specifics 3 different forms Ash organic matter and soot Black color rubber tire black carbon There is more BC than organic matter Natural gas cleanest way just contains methane Diesel eXhaust more than gasoline Trucks and buses use diesel because is cheap Produce more N02s Tiny particles from those get inside the lungs Trucks produce 90 emission of roads N02 breaks apart by sunlight photolysis NOO reacts with other oxygengt O3 producing ozone Oxidation of NO to N02 Diesel N02 power plantcoal Batteries for cars are not good for environment hydrogen car would produce water vapor Converting energy always waster product water is also a greenhouse gas Jet fuel soot emitted in very sensitive areas pressure decreases eXponentially Airplane y in tropopause 10 km where density is less Goes directly into atmosphere Soot cancer in lung Industrial compleX source Distribution of particles number concentration remote continental marine rural urban Mode III large marine concentration is really clean less concentration Fine particles are largely emitted in urban areas They produce secondary Primary emitted are rubber particles that uplift into sky Oxidation process of hydrocarbons more oxygen glues and form clusters due to dipoles water is very prominent Surfaces where water can condense Water can come together and solidify at extremely cold 4 degrees C freezing starts at surface 4C highest density of water Ice formation on sides of lakes Ice needs grit land Ice attaches easier to environment lands ice formation starts at border of lakes H20 hits H20 combines without surface only occurs at low temperatures leads to clean water no minerals Heterogeneous nucleation is already in surface Particle in airwater attaches also works for any other gas with specific volatility Does not work for oxygen or nitrogen vapor condensing to its pure liquid state spontaneous nucleation binary sulfuric acid in water coagulation 2 particles form 1 particle Reduces concentration turbulent turbulence turbulent shear different velocities heavy particles bounce off smaller particles combine Brownian motion particles moves through atmosphere at specific velocities suck pressure and attach Example a car behind a truck is sucked by its air around it Gravitational collection bigger and smaller particles heavier ones fall faster big ones collects other ones Turbulence larger scale Groups of molecules Turbulence shear different larger molecules at specific velocities Other layers are at higher velocities Particles catch up then they eventually mix Example figure 510 in book secondary aerosols produced during day The number concentration of small particles was affected changes in the volume concentration size distribution were affected less
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