Week 7 Notes - Sociology 101
Week 7 Notes - Sociology 101 SOC101
Popular in Sociology 101-001 Intro To Sociology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Patterson on Thursday February 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lesley Williams Reid in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 899 views. For similar materials see Sociology 101-001 Intro To Sociology in Sociology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/26/15
Sociology 101 Week 7 Chapter 11 Social Class in the US 2171521915 o earnings from work or investments 0 The richest 20 of families earning at least 116000 annually received 488 of all income 0 The bottom 20 earning less than 27000 annually received only 38 percent 0 Top 5 of highest paid 9 at least 205000 averaging 345000 or 213 of all income 0 Top 1 earned at least 16 million the total value of money and other assets minus outstanding debts 0 Highest I Physician WhiteCollar occupation 86 0 Lowest I Shoe Shiner BlueCollar occupation 9 o The highest ranking occupations are dominated by men while down the list of Secondary School Teacher and Registered Nurse are dominated by woman 0 Many of the lowestprestige jobs are commonly performed by people of color 0 About 88 of women and men aged 25 have completed high school 0 31 of men and 30 of woman have completed a 4year college degree Ques ons 1 Based on national survey data what occupation is ranked highest in relative social prestige Dentist 2 What way does the US differ from most European nations and Japan The US has never had a titled nobility 3 How do sociologists define the concept of wealth The value of income all other assets minus the value of all outstanding debts 4 The richest 20 of US families received nearly one half of all income earned in the US 5 The poorest 20 of families in the US make up the lower class According to data provided by the US Census Bureau what percentage of all US income is earned by this social class About 4 o more than 13 of the US s richest individuals those with hundreds of millions of dollars in wealth acquired some of their fortunes from inheritance o Inherited poverty shapes the future of tens of millions of others Sociology 101 Week 7 Chapter 11 Social Class in the US 2171521915 o The median African American family s income was 40495 in 2011 just 58 of the 69829 earned by nonHispanic white families 0 The share of nonHispanic white families 74 who own their homes is significantly larger than the comparable share of black families 44 0 People of English ancestry have always enjoyed the most wealth and the greatest power in US society 0 In 2011 the median income among Hispanic families was 40061 which is 57 of the median income for nonHispanic white families 0 On average women have less income wealth and occupational prestige than men 0 Among singleparent families those headed by a woman are more than twice as likely to be poor than those headed by a man Questions 1 Social stratification in the US is a class system which combines meritocracy with elements of a caste system 2 According to recent data from the US Census Bureau the median income of African American families is slightly more than half that of nonHispanic white families 3 People of English ancestry have always enjoyed the most wealth and the greatest power in the US society 4 Families that include married couples earn more than families with a single parent 0 5 of the US population are upper class and earn at last 205000 a year Some earn 10 times that much or more 0 In 2012 Forbes magazine profiled the richest 400 people in the country who were worth at least 1 billion as much as 66 billion 0 Historically the upper class has been composed mostly of white AngloSaxon Protestants less true today 0 Sometimes called blue bloodsquot or society includes less than 1 of the US population 0 Mostly the result of birth have to be born one to be one o Wealth in the form of stocks and bonds real estate and other investments old moneyquot 0 Mostly live in old exclusive neighborhoods such as Beacon Hill Rittenhouse Square in Philadelphia the Gold Coast of Chicago and Nob Hill in San Francisco Sociology 101 Chapter 11 Social Class in the US 0 O O O 00 Week 7 2171521915 Women of the upperupper class do volunteer work for charitable organizations to help the larger community and build networks that broaden this elite s power Mostly upperclass people Working richquot get their money mostly by earning it rather than inhertance Make up 3 or 4 of the US population Live in big houses on the water or in the mountains Most new richquot do not gain entry into the most exclusive clubs and associations of old moneyquot families Above average income in the range of 116000 to 205000 Comfortable homes in fairly expensive areas own several cars and build investments 23 of this class children graduate from college amp postgraduate degrees are common Many are physicians engineers lawyers accountants and business execu ves Work at less prestigious whitecollar jobs bank branch managers high school teachers and government office workers or in highly skilled bluecollar jobs such as electrical work and carpentry Family income between 48500 and 116000 roughly national average Odds are 5050 that high school graduates will complete a 4year college degree Attend a less expensive state supported college or university Family income of between 27000 and 48500 Lower middle classquot Jobs provide little personal satisfaction because the work requires discipline Jobs offer fewer benefits More than half own their own homes usually located in lowercost neighborhoods O Remaining 20 of population make up lower class 463 million people 15 of the population are poor 70 of lowerclass children manage to complete high school but only about 15 ever complete a 4year college degree About 43 of lower class families own their homes living in the least desirable neighborhoods Sociology 101 Chapter 11 Social Class in the US Week 7 2171521915 o Yuma Arizona was recently recorded as the highest official unemployment rate for all US cities about 30 and average income fell to about 18000 Questions 1 2 What trait would make you think that someone was in the middle class in the US He obtains a college degree What makes defining classes in the US society so difficult US society has a relatively low level of status consistency so the boundaries between class levels are not very clear In which part of the country is the largest share of lower class neighborhoods found The inner cities F 0 Children born into poor families are twice as likely to die from disease neglect accidents or violence during their first 3 years of life 0 People with aboveaverage incomes are almost twice as likely as lowincome people to describe their health as excellent 0 Average life expectancy for lowincome people is 5 years less than for affluent people 0 In the 2012 presidential elections 78 percent of adults with family incomes of 100000 voted compared to 54 of those with family incomes of les than 40000 0 Lower class families are somewhat larger than middle class families because of earlier marriage and less use of birth control 0 The odds are that less privileged children will have careers that require more creativity 0 The more money a family has the more resources parents have to develop their children s talents and abilities o Affluent families with earnings greater than 102870 a year will spend 290830 raising a child born in 2011 at the age of 18 0 Middle class families with an annual income between 59410 and 102870 will spend 95560 and a lower income family earning less than 59410 will spend 212370 Questions 1 2 Compared to high income people workingclass people tend to be less tolerant of controversial patterns of behavior in others What is an example of a difference between people of high social standing and people of low social standing People of high social standing tend to favor lower taxes than people of low standing because high income people have more wealth to protect Sociology 101 Week 7 Chapter 11 Social Class in the US 2171521915 3 Why is health closely related to social standing Richer people live healthier and longer because they eat more nutritious food and receive better medical care 4 Working class parents are more likely to encourage obedience and respect for authority figures in their children than middle class parents 5 Middle Class marriages are more likely to involve interests shared by both partners than working class marriages mg a college degree landing a higher a in 39ob or marr in someone who earns a good income 0 H dropping out of school losing a job or becoming divorced change in social position occurring durin a erson s lifetime h upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents Social mobility over the past century has been fairly high Within a single generation social mobility is usually small The longterm trend in social mobility has been upward Since the 1970 s social mobility has been uneven o The shortterm trend in social mobility has been downward Horizontal Social Mobility changing jobs at the same class level Questions 1 Manufacturing jobs lost in the US since 1960 have largely been replaced by service jobs 2 What is most likely a result in downward social mobility for women Getting divorced 3 Callahan who was born to workingclass parents just graduated from medical school and passed his medical board exams experiences what Upward mobility lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more o F lack of resources that is lifethreatening o The poverty rate for people over 60 fell from 30 in 1976 to 87 in 2011 0 About 78 of the poor are elderly 0 219 of people under age 18 161 million children and 206 of people age 1824 62 million young adults were poor 0 48 of the US poor are young people no older than 24 0000 Sociology 101 Chapter 11 Social Class in the US 0 0 Week 7 2171521915 23 of all poor people are white including those who also say they are Hispanic 24 are African Americans African Americans are almost 3 times as likely as nonHispanic whites to be poor In 2011 276 of African Americans 109 million people lived in poverty compared to 253 of Hispanics 132 million 123 of Asians and Pacific Islanders 2 million and 98 of nonHispanic whites 192 million People of color have especially high rates of child poverty 388 are poor 341 among Hispanic children and 125 percent among nonHispanic white children 0 Feminization of poverty trend of woman making up an increasing proportion of the poor In 1960 only 25 of all poor households were headed by women 0 O OO 00 The poor are mostly responsible for their own poverty Society views it as society offer plenty of opportunities to anyone who is able and willing to take advantage of them and the poor are those people who cannot or will not work due to a lack of skills schooling or motivation O 0 Society is mostly responsible for poverty Lack of trying on the part of poor people as a result of little opportunity rather than a cause of poverty Command the sympathy and support of people on both sides of the poverty debate 15 of heads of poor families 14 million women and men worked at least 50 weeks of the year and yet could not escape poverty 30 of these heads of families 28 million people remained poor despite parttime employment About 636000 people including those living in shelters in transit housing and on the street are homeless The number of homeless people in the US is increasing The large majority of homeless people report that they don t work although about 15 have at least a parttime job A fraction of 1 of our population seems unable to cope with out complex and highly competitive society Societal factors low wages and lack of lowincome housing 37 of homeless consists of entire families and they point to children as the fastestgrowing category of the homeless Sociology 101 Week 7 Chapter 11 Social Class in the US 2171521915 Questions 1 All systems of social inequality create relative poverty the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more 2 Children make up the fastestgrowing category of homeless people 3 What set of traits below could best be used to develop a portrait of someone who is likely to be poor in the US Young African American female central city dweller 4 About 23 of people living in the poverty in the US today are white 0 Over the past several decades what has happened to the level of economic inequality in the US Economic inequality has increased dramatically Between 2001 and 2011 what change took place in the share of people who said that they believe that their family can achieve the American dream This share declined considerably
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