Women, Society, and Culture
Women, Society, and Culture
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Femst 20 Women Society and Culture Fall Quarter 2013 926 Diversity Difference Intersectionality Feminisms amp Gender Similarities and Differences in Women Various social factors shape individual identity social position and power relations Structural Analysis social institutions school work etc Biographical Analysis honor every individual s life story Scientific Method verified anyone can perform an experiment with the same outcome Connect Personal and Political Levels Traditional Thinking About Women Dualism Women are what men are not Humoral Theory Women cold amp moist Men hot amp dry Mid Europe amp Islamic Science Victorian Culture 0 Women pious pure domestic submissive Complementarity Women and men together make a whole Chinese yin and yang Victorian marriage as unity of opposites Inferiority of Women Blatant amp more hidden Michigan politicians silencing the v word Contemporary medical language about eggs and sperm Feminist Thinking About Women Two Ideas Women39s Sameness to Men Women39s Difference from Men Shared Rejection of Women39s Inferiority Social arrangements not natural Different explanations for women39s subordination to men What is feminism Worldview Equality of men amp women Recognition of male privilege with in groups Acknowledgment of intersecting hierarchies intersectionality Commitment to social change Feminist Studies Thought Includes Varieties of feminisms responding to traditional thinking about women Rejection of natural subordination social change is possible Questioning If it is not natural why is inequality so pervasive 1001 Attitude How to Present Yourself as Students Adrienne Rich Claiming an Education 1977 To claim to take as rightful owner To receive to come into possession of Theories about Gender Essentialist Biological sex differences in men and women Social Constructionist Differences in men39s and women39s behaviors cultural and vary among societies Social Construction of Gender Transgender and Intersexuality Stryker gender matters beyond theory Individuals experience feelings Medical legal family institutions Social stigma and danger Social Movements National Trans Advocacy Transgender people are and have always been an integral part of our community and the struggle to est civil rights protections for transgender people cannot be separated from the struggle to win freedom and equality for lesbian gay and bisexual people LGBT to GLB LGB sexuality T identity outcast 112014 and LA unified 2005 similar policy Tested it out with local level and state levels CA public schools now allow T students to participate in every activity in accordance with their gender identity Significance of Gender Bending Gender is a process We are all doing gender Lorber argues some gender bending does not challenge gender boundaries Paradoxically then bending gender rules and passing between genders do not erode but rather preserve gender boundaries binaries 38 Some in transgender community disagree with Lorber see Stryker Defines T as a way of being a man or a woman or a way of marking resistance to those terms 68 T Phenomena is defined as anything that disrupts or denaturalizes normative gender 64 Those who cannot or refuse to follow societal gender rules associated with their physical sex may identify as gender variant gender non conformist gender queer Important Note Intersexuality and transgender are not sexual identities or necessarily linked to sexual orientation 68 Cisgender pronounced sisgender Identifying with the gender identity assigned to you at birth AKA non transgender Constructing Gender Intersex Infants Total number of people whose bodies differ from standard male or female 1 in 100 births Total number of people receiving surgery to normalize genital appearance 1 or 2 in 1000 births 90 intersex children assigned as girls Criticism of Med Inst Kessler Physicians promote socially constructed idea that there are two distinct sexes Re assign the natural bodies of intersex children What counts as Natural Not Kessler Physicians normalize existence of the intersex child to parents 1 Stress normal aspects of baby 2 Act as though they can determine the real sex 3 Stress social over biological nature of gender Intersex of Political Activism Intersex society of North America 1993 Founder Cheryl Chase Support information activism ISNA devoted to systematic change to end Shame Secrecy Unwanted genital surgeries for people born with an anatomy that someone decided is not standard for male or female 103 Growing up Female Biology or Society Women and men of all races are affected by social const of difference Difference should not be seen as a problem inequality based on difference is a problem Gender is raced classed and varies by place culture and history the social constructiveness Theory of Intersectionality p 30 The recognition that gender is inexplicably intertwined with race class sexuality and many other distinctions Represents reality and how power works in our society Borderlands Theory Segura and Zavella Draws on work by the late Gloria Anzaldua Chicana feminist lesbian poet and theorist Living in the borderlands being caught between two worlds literal geographic borderlands of US Mexico border Working class and middle class cultures Gay and straight cultures The borderlands can be a space for critical reflection creation of a unique subjectivity sit of resistance against structural oppression and violence Real effects practical effects of borderlands Migration immigration Economic exploitation discrimination people of Mexican descent in the US disproportionately high rates of poverty Poverty is feminized women higher rates of poverty than men Global capitalist policies extract human labor from Mexico to benefit US business profits Symbolic effects of borderlands Hybrid forms of identity created Spiritual Psychic feelings in between Our survival depends on being creative Transgender Feminism Theory Stryker What is theory anyway an effort to understand and explain the social world p 30 We all create theories Lorber The social order as we know it in Western societies is organized around racial ethnic class and gender inequality I contend therefore that the continuing purpose of gender as a modern social institution is to construct women as a group to be the subordinates of men as a group 64 Agency is the idea that individuals do have power and make their own decisions Difference is not negative Race class gender etc do constrain human actions and people maintain agency and may resist or undermine these structures Masculinity is constructed too Hegemonic Masculinity the most honored or desired masculinity in a particular context Connell 88 Significance of Gender Gender is central to all ways of being and societal categorization process and institution see Lorber s list More complicated than gender is social sex is biological Two gender system not the only possibility transgender intersexuality Expansion of gender categories can benefit everyone How 108 Perceptions of Others and Pressures to Conform Socialization Gender Culture and Socialization Social Institutions family school media language law medicine etc Shape how we see and others see others ourselves and the world Feminists focus on gender racial class inequalities in culture language and resistance to inequalities Don t say yes Don t say no Socialization creates two ranked genders Socialization does not end with childhood Race ethnicity class etc citizenship disability body size affect how we are socialized Socialization Gender amp Childhood Newman Narrow gender expectations for young boys and girls sti e their personalities and emotional development Examples Newman gives from Ben39s life Stores are set up to exclude him to make him feel that what he wants is not the norm When he was a toddler he was mistaken for a girl Video in class boy in pink nail polish sparks online outrage My Princess Boy Kids Un Learning Gender Why does it matter what children think and do Anneke azz MasculinitySexuality Links Males who do not fit masculine norms risk being rejected for 1 Gender transgression 2 Being perceived as gay Sexism and homophobia promote structural oppression Media and the social construction of masculinity Newman Multiple masculinities some represented as more powerful than others recall to last week39s clip Target Women Doofy Husbands Socialization amp G Rated Films Martin amp Kayzak Role of Heterosexuality G rated movies claim to be sexuality free Films promote heterosexuality and heteronormativity assumption that individuals are heterosexual Presumes a specific type of heterosexuality as the norm Monogamous procreative same race couples partners uphold traditional gender ideals Heterosexual romance is portrayed as different from other relationships Glorified transformative amp magical Framed as natural Children learn heterosexual male gaze and sexual objectification of women39s bodies Men ogle Women use bodies to attract sexual attention Racism sexism heterosexism bodies of women of color hypersexualized and treated as exotic 1010 Selling and Buying Beauty Images Body image in fact may be the pivotal third wave issue the common struggle that mobilizes the current feminist generation Amy Richards Beauty is a business Capitalist and socialist institutions trying to get us to buy beauty Hierarchies of beauty and bodies Based on race ethnicity class sexuality age size ability nation etc September 2013 France banned U16 beauty pageants Critiquing media and its effects on us can be a powerful tool for improving people39s lives and senses of self worth Dove Real Beauty Campaign Many of you voice concern about media representations You are in good company see this take on the politics of beauty The most common way to give up your power is thinking you don39t have any Body Sizeism Fat is a Feminist Issue Fat studies scholars Examine roles of body weight size in society Critique how people perceive and relate to fatness Support fat activist liberation movement Effects of the Obesity Epidemic Public attitudes about fat have never been more judgmental I39ve sat in meetings with colleagues who wouldn39t dream of disparaging anyone s color sex economic status or general attractiveness yet feel free to comment witheringly on a person39s weight FatSo Manifesto There s nothing wrong with being fat Iust like there39s nothing wrong with being short or tall or black and brown These are facts of identity that cannot and should not be changed Dove PPPO Johnston and Taylor Dove Beauty goal to be reached through products the goal is beauty Ex feminist consumerism idea that feminism and empowerment is achieved through shopping page 122amp124 Both claim to challenge hegemonic beauty codes that articulate a virtually unachievable conception of physical beauty 12 1 Dove Make peace with beauty PPPO embrace nonconforming fat bodies and wage war with hegemonic beauty standards 122 DRB positive feelings women should have about their bodies PPPO painful and angry feelings about beauty culture rejection of beauty as goal Hair Banks White women39s long owing hair symbol of femininity Race ethnicity and class important aspects of beauty ideals Women with too short hair are often viewed as lesbian Men with long hair sexuality questioned Political global symbolism of hair styles Family Sexuality Cultural Expectations Espiritu Interviewed 100 Filipinao Americans Filipinas and other Asian women characterized as erotic or submissive Hypersexualism of Filipinas by US military men in Philippines Filipinaos try to separate themselves from these representatives Perceive Filipino culture as superior to white US culture Filipino close knit families Vs white families impersonal and individualistic Filipina daughters but not sons expected to be virtuous Vs white women sexually immoral 1029 Women39s Bodies Women39s Lives Bodies Key Concepts Social Institutions politics law family medicine and media shape Access to health care Healthy work conditions Ways women see themselves and see others Late 1960s feminists formed women39s health movement Women39s bodies site of political contestation and control OBOS Founders By disseminating women39s experience and knowledge as valid information OBOS challenged the paternalistic medical system What we couldn39t have foreseen then was that our book would help create a women39s health movement Birth control is political not just technological FDA approves the pill 1960 ROE VS WADE 1973 Approval of ECPLAN B and FC2 Fed state funding for abstinence only sex ed No male pill Men39s BC Methods Condoms withdraw Men39s Repro Sexual health and the Male Pill testosterone injection too The sex drive of a 30 year old The sperm count of a 130 year old Population control Overpopulation Reduce birthrate china impelents one child police 1979 Increase birthrate Romania outlawed abortion 1996 Challenge to Catholic and pronantal views Mexico City amp Ireland Google Babies Twine Connects to Zoll s lecture Surrogate baby boom re defining how some upper middle upper class families acquire children Women earn third party workers and sell eggs and or use of wombs Risks of Surrogacy Egg donation Physical risks including death pain amp invasive medical procedures Many countries in the Globa North banned commercial surrogacy Remains legal in some US states FL amp CA top The entire process is a complete celebration I can39t say enough about the doctor egg donor and surrogate mother I hooked up with I think it goes beyond all cash they got Most people think very badly of surrogacy They think it means to sleep with other men So I don39t tell my relatives and friends CS Ex Of Stratified Reproduction Low income and or WOC perform questational labor for high income white see og 370 Repro tourists go to CA amp India Global Inequalities North South Disordered Eating Thompson Argues we must understand diverse causes of eating problems Why To find help for women who are at the intersections of multiple axes of oppression To demystify3 main theories used to explain eating problems Sexual Abuse Most Common Trauma Consequences Need to change or punish body Feeling out of control Sexism poverty racism and heterosexism cause stress that food coping mechanism 115 Pussy riot MCC wed at 6 Bodies Power Inequalities amp Violence Against Women Making reproduction decisions requires Access to reliable and safe contraceptives Education and accurate information State support not control Positive cultural attitudes toward sexuality Key Concepts Violence Violence against women is pervasive in all cultures Violence and fear of violence control women39s actions and bodies Social institutions and individuals create and continue violence vs women girls The trauma girlswomen experience can lead them to commit violence themselves Hierarchies Built on race and ethnicity class and sexuality intersect with gender inequality to produce and maintain violence against women AKA Structural Institutional Violence SV Coined by Iohan Galtung amp liberation theologians during the 19605 Describes social structures economic political legal religious and cultural that stop individuals groups and societies from reaching their full potential Violence injury Ex disparate access to resources political power education health care and legal standing Idea of structural violence linked to social injustice Feminist Perspectives and Activism Sexual assault Social Control Prevention Legal reform rape culture California law prohibits revenge porn The problem with rape culture isn39t alcohol The problem with rape culture is rape My strength is not for hurting Masters Analyzes how men articulate to other men how to intervene in rape culture Men must become aware of how dominant norms around het masculinity can be harmful to women amp men Two types of masculinity in campaigns Macho condemning and preventing rape bolsters real men Androgynous encouraged to embrace femininity to become more whole 0thering vs Claiming the Rapist Asking men to interrogate their own behaviors is more useful in anti rape prevention than othering the figure of the rapist Themes in Other Media Campaigns No more Walk a mile in her shoes 117 Women39s Health amp Social Justice Mapping the Margins Crenshaw Immigrant women are often forced to remain in abusive relationships to avoid being deported Many of these women experience cultural and linguistic barriers to services for abused women Political strategies of anti racist amp feminist movements often silenced debate about needs of Women of Color WOC Anti Racist wanted to counter stereotypes of minorities and maintain family honor FemMov often focused on needs of white women and ignores specific needs of W0C Kimberly Crenshaw in 1989 coined the term intersectionality Crenshaw critical legal and race theorist Metaphor to explain how racism and sexism interact in Black women39s lives A theoretical framework that emphasizes that race class gender age etc and moreover racism classism sexism ageism etc operate together intersect SBRCC We are dedicated and committed to ending sexual assault in our lifetime served over 100000 survivors of sexual assault and their significant others in the last 35 years Each year responds to approximately 700 new cases Meeting diverse needs Bilingual bicultural services staff resources Centro Contra la Violacion Sexual Estamos decidados y comprometidos para terminar con el abuso sexual en nuestro tiempo Resources doe LGBTQ you and allies High school education outreach Violence Against Girls Provokes Girls Violence Shaffner Interviews with 100 mostly girls of color 22 US uv Det Facilities 10 year study Long lasting impact familial relationship based and community violence plays in girls lives Violence coping mechanism Similar to young men young women suffering from depression may translate it into aggression High rates of depression Poor girls of color are more vulnerable to abuse and less likely to receive legal aid and have access to healing resources Homophobia cause of violence vs girls Internalized Failure to view same sex desire as legitimate perpetuates homophobia VictimblamingSlutshaming How can we using a feminist framework recognize indivual agency and structural violence What does the word survivor mean vs victim Rape RiskReduction Products What Are The Messages AntiRape Female Condom 1995 teeth down there South Africa Spikes affix to assaulter s penis At the hospital arrest No evidence of public marketing AntiRape Boy Shorts 2013 Locking devices around thighs and waist resistant to pulling tearing and cutting wearable protection for when things for wrong Confronting Violence Affects all areas of women39s lives but is varied Is a lifelong experience Is one of the ways the women39s movement has made a difference Is a global struggle 1112 The Social Organization of Socialization Work Key Themes Gender in combination with race and class constrains all people39s opportunities in the work force The institution of work limits women39s access to power and financial resources Occupational segregation leads to inequalities between sexes and racial ethnic groups global inequalities too Global shopping in the global economy Shopping is A gendered role importance of consumption in women39s lives Participating in the global economy Powerful consumers can do something to promote change Woman as Shopper Family economy to consumer economy Shopping and female public sphere Advertising creates desire Potential economic power Gender and the Global Assembly Line Outsourcing maquiladoras Age gender pregnancy tests quotas What can be done Anti sweatshop movement campus organizing Consumer education boycotts Union organizing Thinking about workplaces when you shop To live means to buy to buy means to have power to have power means to have duties Mardi Gras Made in China What connects the workers and consumers of MG beads What role does gender age nationality and class play in the production and consumption of MG beads ShoppingWorking at the Nail Salon Body Labor Kang Involves the exchange of body related services for a wage and the performance of physical and emotional labor in this exchange 257 Kang outlines 3 dimensions of body labor Nail work involves gendered emotional labor NYC 3 fieldsites with interviews High service body labor white middle and upper class customers spaluxury Lower middle and working class African American and Caribbean women39s nail treatments expressive body labor Korean salons demonstrate support of the African American community Women from all racial backgrounds and from lower middle class and middle class prefer routinized body labor quick inexpensive and courteous Standardized and predictable physical labor Limited emotional labor Women at home Can women do it all Should we Can39t lose the baby weight Feeling trapped by your kids Buried under toys and mess The ultimate at home workout Get lean while you CLEAN 1114 Going to Work Wage Gap Women overall earn 77 cents to every earned by men for fulltime work Asian pacific islander women 872 cents African American women 717 cents Latinas 585 cents Example lack of equal pay costs family 10 months of mortgage payments and utilities in Arkansas 11 months of rent in Delaware Over 2500 gallons of gas in Maine Over 2 years of food bills in Louisiana States differ National Partnership for Women amp Families Health care insurance is tied to employment Why Bose amp Whaley Occupational segregation Women secretary 98 Cashier 78 Registered nurse 93 Elementary teacher 84 Men truck driver 94 Carpenters 98 Consequence 53 of women workers would have to change occupations to desegregate the workforce Domination of men in blue collar positions and women in pink collar occupations shows Work considered women39s work is less valued and paid than work considered men39s work Being a working mother means always having to say you39re sorry NYT 11413 Sticky oor Glass ceiling mommy track Different gendered social expectations socialization for men and women can historically explain sex segregation in the workforce HOWEVER Structural barriers in the workplace better explain sex segregation Maid in LA Hondagneu Sotelo Domestic workers in the US racialized workforce of Central American women Immigrant networks support constrain options Range of types of jobs pay working conditions housecleaning live inlive out nannies Live in jobs often the first jobs for recent immigrant women Isolation lack of privacy food pay Live out jobs paid more and more time for own family social life Take great pride in their childcare work often criticize employers for their child rearing practices Employers prefer to hire Central American women for racialized and or racist reasons Latina workers use racial stereotypes to describe the preferences of their employers Organizing Home Care Klein amp Boris History home care HC in US emphasis on NY HC a privatized industry Continue to fight for rights and educate others about the importance of care as labor Organizing unions holding strikes filing lawsuits and agitating for basic work protections Future of women39s work Socialization Education Types of work SEE MOM WORKquot 1119 Social Protest and Feminist Movements Key Themes Contemporary Feminist Movements diverse with varying participants ideas goals and strategies Women and feminists have often perpetuated various class racial and even gender inequalities Outside forces including economics technologies and politics affect feminist activism Feminist activism challenges sexism on 3 levels Individual consciousness and interactions with others Social Structural institutional Cultural Antifeminist attempts to discredit feminism all feminists generalization no need now harms society UCSB Women39s Center est 1975 What does it mean to be political Voting and holding office Street protests Nurse ins by lactivists Boycotts Unions Shopping Slutwalking Were women not political before right to vote How do women win political rights if excluded from politics US Women struggled for the vote 1848 Seneca Falls Convention Equal suffrage proposed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton Arguments justice amp expediency Petitioning organizing working for political parties persuading male voters Susan B Anthony arrest cast illegal vote in 1872 presidential election find 100 but refused to pay Waves of US Feminist Movement Crossley et al Forever Feminism First Wave Out of 1830s abolitionist struggle Seneca Falls Convention 1848 Peaked with suffrage victory in 1920 Second Wave Out of 1960s social discontent wmst academic arm of women39s movement Third Wave Emerged in 1990s 19 century feminists goal equal rights with men Education Own property Vote Employment full citizenship 19th amendment 1920 20 century Feminist Goals Equality and Revolution Simone de Beauvoir s The Second Sex 1950 New social order to eliminate the sex class system quotI do not refer to myself as a housewife for the reason that I did not marry a house Feminism is the radical notion that women are people Two structures 2quot wave movement Late 1960s on 1 Large hierarchical and bureaucratic structures Focus on existing political system Older professional women liberallegal reform ideologies 2 Small collectively organized Focus on cultural aspects of change Younger women civil rights New Left movements radical ideologies personal as political CR Today39s Persistent Feminisms 3rd wave feminists Use intersectional analysis Reject gender binary and rigid gender roles Embrace sexuality Include men in the movement Global Feminist Info amp Resources The Association for Women39s Rights in Development to strengthen movements to advance women39s rights Feminism Online Feminists or Postfeminists Aronson In depth interviews with diverse sample young women Little evidence that feminism is dead Majority recognize social economic educational rights and gender inequality exist Nearly allsupportive of feminist issues 25 feminists 1 3 fence sitters 50 did not define themselves in terms of feminism Nearly all of the young women felt they had experienced minor gender discrimination A few felt they had faced blatant discrimination Workplaces particular concern Feminist Identity tied with involvement in institution that support feminism Many cannot afford the luxury to think about feminism Many are aware of negative stereotypes of feminists 1121 Women in Combat Narratives and Images of Women in the US Military 18 and 19 century Nurses laundresses cooks revolutionists and cross dressing soldiers Revolutionary War Civil War Spanish American War World War 11 Post War Mid 20th Century Women in Combat Late 20th Century All Volunteer Services Female Service Members and the Media Long history of women in service so why the current debate Roles women are expected to play Patriotic caretaker Sexual availability Hierarchy of citizenship Women39s bodies as threat o physical liability 0 sexual threat 0 men39s emotions Egalitarian Feminists and Feminist Anti Militants o Do equal rights change the szystem o Militarywar a man s world Theater and the Female Soldier Women39s History Feminist Activism amp Critique Reproductive Justice Smith Suggests Prolife camp follow other Christian evangelicals who question the criminal justice system Prochoice position should come from an anti prison position because many poor women and or women of color have their pregnancies criminalized The pro choice position only guarantees reproductive choices to women who can afford them and who are seen as able to make good choices Consequences of antiabortion Criminalize Abortion amp Penalize women docs Would contribute to the prison industrial complex that disproportionately hurts minorities and the poor Prisons do not decrease crime rates they take away resources from other institutions that could address social issues Reproductive Justice Movement 1126 Guest Lecture The Soviet emancipation of Muslim women of Tajikistan 19241982 On going debates in the international arena What happens when a state coerces emancipation of women in a society deeply rooted in centuries of religious traditions and values When the imposed political ideology is inherently at odds with its own implementation approach Imperialism which prevails Tajikistan code word Located in between Middle East and Asia The Zhenotdel in Tajikistan the communist party women39s department emancipation of Muslim women The unveiling campaign The abolition of religious traditions and other practices Education Vocational training Social welfare programs Main Arguments while attempting to mobilize and liberate Muslim women the Soviet emancipation campaign was accompanied by contradictory outcomes Contradictory policies of the Soviet Regime Stalin39s Great Retreat Soviet women39s emancipation is completed The New Soviet Woman Women models of upright citizenship and clean living Supportive to husbands Loyalty and devotion to state Modernization through rapid industrialization Women39s double and triple burden Women during the Stalin Era 19301953 By the 1950s the regime largely succeeded by putting women to work Abolished child marriages polygamy and bride payments Revolutionary changes for the Muslim women The Soviet regime had to make concessions to native Muslim men existing power structures Left women39s questions in the hands of native men Women have guardian s of faith What happens when an authoritarian regime bans public religion Before if the men met together to pray there would be trouble The women thought that was different No one saw Muslim womenguardians of faith Similar situations in Iran Turkey and parts of colonoial territories of soth asia and the middle east While the regime managed to put women to work and unveil them women preserved their reliogus roles within private domain The forced emancipation are complicated This week39s reading do muslim women really need saving by Lila Conclusions Existing social structures power brokers make concession to men who in turn become reluctant to give up authority Even when the intention is good the outcomes can be contradictory In the absence of a more appealing identity women tend to resort and seek refugre within their own traditional identity Key Themes The lives of women around the world vary 1 Country policies 2 Ideologies regarding women 3 Countries positions in global hierarchy Feminist focus on the ways government policies and actions perpetuate differences that oppress women Organize to change inequalities Not all women have the same interests women39s needs vary South Africa power HIV etc The West Saves The Rest Abu Lughod Muslim women do not need to be saved by US government Arg supported 2001 war against Afghanistan Burqa does not mean women have no freedom or agency Many voluntarily wear various forms of head coverings Focus on veiling ethnocentric view Diverse attitudes of Muslims reduced to single item of clothing Oppression of Muslim women by Muslim men made many in W feel superior Feminism is not only Western or secular For some feminisms religion culture play important role Western women should focus on cooperating with Muslim women who seek social change Globalization and Activism Chang Globalization and government policies encourage women to migrate to North America Thousands of Filipinas trained nurses migrate and are forced into low paid care work Send money home to own kids families Who benefits Philippines send home and paid to emigrate US amp Canada low cost carework another ex of transnational motherhood Social Justice Organizing NYC Women Workers Project Regulate domestic industry and receive better working conditions Philippine Women Centre in Canada Fight government policies and globalization Chang finds Filipinas have more sophisticated understanding of global policies than educated W feminists McCormack Stratified Reproduction and Poor Women39s Resistance Impoverished women who receive public assistance discriminated against and labeled bad mothers Intv 34 women Stratified reproduction White hetero married mid to tupper class are encouraged to reproduce Poor single queer women of color are not encouraged to reproduce Interlocking systems of heterosexism classism and racism 1996 Welfare reform or deform Single mothers must work to receive public assistance Goal End welfare as we know it Resist bad mother label 5 child centered values Put first spend time provide for keep out of trouble keep safe Challenges low paying jobs shift work childcare Limits of resistance lustifying self as a good mother 1 Provides resistance vs vilification of mother rec ing public assist 2 Reiterates middle class often white coded norms about good mothers Women can change the world by organizing fighting for education employment state support civil rights combating violence creating different way too social justice Feminist Advocacy What are feminisms World views Belief in equal worth of women and men Recognition of male privilege within groups Understanding of intersecting hierarchies using the theory of intersectionality Commitment to advocating social change Feminist Social Change Video Transgression means different Patateras respect for difference Feminists preach different subjects from different countries 391 advocate feminism instead of quotI am a feminist Theories drawing on experiences identities A theory in the esh means one where the physical realities of our lives our skin color the land of concrete we grew up on our sexual longings all fuse to create a politic born out of necessity Here we attempt to bridge the contradictions in our experience w We are the colored in a white feminist movement We are the feminists among the people of our culture We are often the lesbians among the straight we do this bridging by naming our selves and by telling our stories in our own words Queer Politics Cohen Analysis of the potential and the limits of queer theorizing and politics for radical social change Radical potential of queer politics Ability to create space in opposition to cultural norms where the marginalized is celebrated Ability to recognize the uidity of categories of sexual identity Limits criticism of queer theory Use of single identity politics that privileges sexual identity over other categories of oppression Lack of attention paid to intersecting oppressions particularly of POC Lack of attention to diversity of people within the category heterosexual Some expressions of heterosexuality break queer straight binary Confrontational challenge to power seeking broad changes in values definitions and structures of society A Lesbian Avenger is anyone dedicated to working for dyke survival and visibility mostly through direct action and street theater 2001 Does the straight but not narrow campaign support or contradict Cathy Cohen39s arguments Other equality campaigns The use of humor in This 125 Social Change Audre Lorde 1934 1992 New theories must be developed to challenge all forms of oppression to dismantle gender oppression The master39s tools cannot dismantle the master39s house We should be able to work around common theories that have to do with oppression We are trained to think about things in a certain way therefore we are serving the master Lorde then M Iacqui Alexander People With Disabilities Eli Clare explores what it means to live as a person with a physical disability amp other intersecting identities in an ableist society Disability oppression can be internalized by people with disabilities Aging disabling Able bodied people often focus on stories of the supercrup amp on overcoming disability as inspirational Disability is often seen as inability removes agency Adrienne Rich Claiming an Education 1977 Responsibility to yourself Means that we insist on a life of meaningful work insist that work be as meaningful as love and friendship in our lives It means therefore the courage to be different not to be continuously available to others The difference between a life lived actively and a life of passive drifting and dispersal of energies is an immense difference Once we begin to feel committed to our lives responsible to ourselves we can never again be satisfied with the old passive way Transform the World Look for internet research amp activism Study marginalized books Take courses in fields that care about social movements Work for individual and social change Insist on intersectional analyses Be critical creative and courageous Seeing social change in varied ways Case Moving the Goalposts Goal social change through football
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