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Micro week 2 test 4

by: UNT_Scientist

Micro week 2 test 4 Biol 2041


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About this Document

This notes cover A LOT this is part of our final good luck
Daniel Kunz
Class Notes
Microbiology, kunz, UNT
25 ?




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by UNT_Scientist on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2041 at University of North Texas taught by Daniel Kunz in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 04/23/16
Week 2 April 18  Test 4   Direct text   Vocabulary   ○ Differentiation of B and T Cells   ■ Pathogenic bacteria   ■ Virus   ■ Cell infected with virus   ■ Foreign protein or hapten   ■ Fig 17.8    ■ Immunological memory  ●   ● Vaccine   ○ Organisms   ○ Molecular fractions thereof that will elicit an immune  response   ○ Discovered   ■ Edward Jenner (1796) cowpox results in the  increased immunity in humans to small pox   ○ Attenuated organisms   ■ Virulence is decreased   ○ Inactivate   ○ Fractions   ■ Subunit vaccines   ■ H1N1 vaccine that elites and immune responses   ■ Recombination DNA   ■ Building a vaccine   ○ Toxoids   ■ Inactivateoxins   ○   ■ colonial membrane   ● Discovered but S.Tonegawa who won a Nobel prize in 1987  ● fig 17.5   ● Chapter 18  ○ Applications of immunology   ■ Fig 18.11   ■ Percipient  reaction   ● Fig 18.4   ○ Results in a zone of precipitation in the middle of the test  tube   ■ Agglutination reaction  ● Involved in particulates antigen and antibodies   ● Antigens may be   ○ On a cell   ○ Attached by latex spheres   ■ Serology reaction  ● Antigen reactions studied of visualized in vitro   ■ Neutralization reaction  ● Neutralization of virus by adding antibodies to it   ■ Fluorescent antibody e=technique (fig 18.11)  ● Chapter 19  ○ Immunsystem abnormalities   ■ Hypersensitivity   ■ Fig 19.4   ■ Erythroblastosis fetalis   ■ Uses serum antibodies   ● Anaphylaxis   ● Cytotoxicity   ● Immune complex  ● Delayed hypersensitivity   ○ Cell mediated process  ● Chapter 21   ○ Normal flora   ■ Propionbacterium  ■ Staph  ● Staphylococcal skin infection   ○ Impetigo of the newborn   ○ Toxemia   ○ Scale dead skin syndrome   ○ Toxic shock syndrome   ● MRSA   ■ Micrococcus  ○ Bacterial Disease    ■ Staphylococcus   ■ Streptococcus   ● Streptococcal (group a) skin infections   ○ Caused by​Streptococcal profess   ■ Necrotizing fasciitis   ■ exotoxin a ­superlative   ■ Erysipelas   ■ Impetigo   ■ Fig 21.4   ■ fig 21.7  ■ fig 21.8  ○ Loss of color is a result of hemolysis of cells  ○ Produces capsules and M proteins   ○ Has Hyaluronidase which allows the cells to enter into  tissues   ■ Pseudomonas (aeruginosa)  ● Swimmer's ear   ● Enters body via hot tubs and pools also skin surgeries   ● Present nosocomial infection   ● Primary cause of cystic fibrosis   ■ Propionibacterium acnes  ● Acene   ○ Where skin cells shed around the hair follicle   ○ P. acene   ■ Hair follicle produce a fatty liquid call sebum which  is made up of glycerol the body makes these fatty  acids via fermentation produces propionic acid   ■ Propionic acid smells bad   ■ Cured with benzoyl peroxides   ○ Viral Diseases  ■  Warts (Shopes papilloma)    ■ Smallpox  (Variola major) ­ mortality rate = 20%  ● Manifest self in pox and lesion formation.  ● First vaccine created   ● Almost irradiated   ● Humans are the only known reservoirs  ● Can be found near Ft. Detrick and in Russia   ● Resistant to desiccation   ● Portal of entry   ○ Respiratory   ■ Chicks pox and shingles (herpes zoster)  ● Herpes Zoster   ○ Type 3   ○ HV 3  ● Portal of entry   ○ Respiratory   ● Will be latent for 55 years  ○ Will result in nerve damage due to spinal column latency   ■ Measles (rubeola) ­ highly contagious  ● Highly contagious is called rubeola   ● Transmitted by respiratory system   ● Noticed a decline due to vaccine   ● Can result in death   ■ German measles (rubella) ­ milder  ■  Cold sore (herpes simplex) Type 1 & 2 (genital herpes)  ● HV 1   ○ Sets up living in trigeminal revenue ganglia   ○ Results in cold sore   ○ Used Acyclovir to treat   ● HV 2  ○ Genital herpes   ○ Fungal Disease  ■  Tinea capitis  ­ ringworm  of head ­ Tricophyto  ■  Tinea cruris ­ ringworm of groin (jockitch) ­Epidermophyton  ■  Tinea pedis ­ ringworm of foot (athlete’s foot)  ■ Candidiasis ­ genital mucous membranes/thrush   ○ Eye infection   ■ Known as conjunctivitis   ● Simply means infection of the eye   ■ Disease   ● Ophthalmia neonatorum   ○ Associated wit​. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomat​also  in Amoebic keratitis caused by acanthamoeba   ○ Treatment is with silver nitrate   ○ Gentoo urinary system diseases   ■ UTI   ● E.coli   ● Proteus   ● Klebsiella   ○ All are opportunist   ● Goon coal urethritis   ● Nongooncoccalurethris   ● Chlamydia trachomatis   ○ 4 million cases   ○ Displays latency   ○ Women are 5 times more likely to have this disease   ○ 50% of the men and 60% of the women are unaware they  have it   ■ Bladder infection   ● Known as cystitis   ■ Kidney   ● Pyelonephritis   ■ Females are more susceptible   ■ Treatment   ● Antibiotic combination ion   ■ Reproductive STD   ● Bacterial   ○ Direct sexual contact  ○ Gonorrhea   ■ Bacteria attaches onto urinary tract in the mucous  membranes   ■ The infection in women can move up into the  Filipino tubes and the ovaries   ■ Can cause PID   ■ Pelvic inflammatory disorder   ■ Salpingitis   ■ Infection of Fallopian tubes   ■ Not obvious in women   ■ Caused by a gram negative cocci   ■ Neisseria gonorrhoeae  ○ Syphilis   ■ Caused by gram negative spirochetes   ■ Treponema pallium   ■ Invades mucosa or through skin breaks   ■ Primary   ■ Chancre  ■ secondary   ■ Lesions on the body in a secondary place   ■ Tertiary   ■ Gumma lesion   ● Viral   ○ Direct sexual contact   ○ Genital herpes  ■ Herpes simplex virus 2   ■ HHV2   ■ Neonatal herpes transmitted to get us or newborns   ■ Recurrences from viruses latent in nerves   ■ Suppression   ■ Acyclovir   ■ Inhibits replication of viral infection   ■ Valacyclovir   ○ Genital warts  ■ Approximately 1 million per year reported in the US   ■ Human papillomaviruses   ■ Concern with it related to cervical cancer  ■ Vaccination and suppressive drugs   ■ Cryotherapy   ■ Surgery   ■ Primary means of contraction STD  ○   ● Protozoal   ○ Direct sexual contact  ● Fungal  ○ Candidiasis   ■ Not an STD  ■ Generalized effects of STDS  ● External lesions/ chances  ● PID  ● Destruction of reproductive organs ovaries, vas defense   ○ Scar tissue   ● Systemic effects   ○ CNS   ■ Example   ■ Blindness  ● KYPYP  ○ Keep your penis in your pants   ● Skins lesion   ○ 21.2   ○ Vehicle   ○ Bulla  ○ Pustule   ● Biofilms   ○ A slime community   ○ 65% of all human infections occur because biolfilms   ● The digestive system   ○ Normal flora   ■ Lower part of the GI tract has excess off 100 bill bacteria per gram   ■ Makes up majority of fecal matter   ● Bactericides and lactobacillus make up this excrement   ○ Oral cavity   ■ Tooth decay   ● Fig 25.4   ■  Caries  ● Damage to tooth enamel    ○ Streptococcus cause damage due to fermination   ○ Sucrose­­­>glucose­­­>fructos­­fermetation­­­> lactic acid   ■ Periodontal disease  ● Gingivitis   ○ Gum infection  ● Periodontitis   ○ Chronic gingivitis   ● Caused by   ○ Streptococci   ○ Spirochetes   ○ Fusobacterium 


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