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Immune System: Part 2

by: rkl130030

Immune System: Part 2 Biol 2312

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About this Document

This material covers from toll-like receptors (TLRs) through the complement system of proteins.
Introduction to Modern Biology II
Michelle Wilson
Class Notes
immune, system, Biology, phagocytes neutrophils monocyte macrophages microbial capture opsonization phagocytosis phagosome phagolysosome exocytosis eosinophils basophils mast cells natural killer cells cytotoxic perforin granzymes degranulation MHC I marer apoptosis
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by rkl130030 on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2312 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Michelle Wilson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Biology II in Natural Sciences at University of Texas at Dallas.


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Date Created: 04/23/16
The Immune System: Part 2 Toll­like receptors (TLR) via innate immunity  Best studied TLR is Drosophila o Originally discovered as part of the dorsal­ventral patterning pathway o Responds to fungal infection  (TLR) 11 in humans, 13 in mice.  Bind to specific targets needed for pathogen survival o Gram­negative LPS o Bacterial lipoproteins o Bacterial peptidoglycan fragments o Yeast cell­wall components o Unmethylated CpG motifs in bacterial DNA o Viral DNA   Contain leucine­rich regions that contour to form binding pocket  A single­cell receptor type recognizes a range of pathogens  Innate response to infection: o Innate receptors activate > signal transduction pathways turned on > enhance innate and  adaptive immune responses > induction of inflammatory response > antimicorbial  peptides produced > cytokines produced > attraction of phagocytic cells, B cells, & T  cells  Second class of receptors discovered (cytoplasmic receptors) o Bind to pathogen molecules o Recognize invading pathogens in the cytoplasm after phagocytosis o Part of response to viral RNA  Soluble receptors circulate in serum and respond to specific pathogen molecules Innate immunity = variety of responses to pathogens  Several classes of peptides: defensins, interferons, cytokines  Defensins: cysteines interact with postiviely charged amino acids on surface of pathogen o Disrupts the membrane and enhances phagocytosis  Interferons: Type I and type II secreted signaling molecules  o Type I – synthesized when a virus infects a cell and acts as a messenger that protects  normal healthy cells close by; induces degradation of RNA and blocks production of  protein needed for cells (kills cells, but prevents spread of virus) o Type II ­ (interferon gamma, in humans) produced only by T­lymphocytes and natural  killer cells (NKC); secretion is part of defense against infection and cancer  Cytokines: attract other non­specific phagocytic cells, causes inflammation, and signals adaptive  immune system Phagocytic cells and innate immunity  3 basic kinds of defending leukocytes: o Macrophages – large, irregularly shaped, kills microorganisms by ingesting them  through phagocytosis  Can engulf viruses, cell bebris, and dust particles in the lungs  Roam around in the extra­cellular fluid  Monocytes squeeze through endothelial cell walls of capillaries in order to enter  connective tissue  At site of infection, monocytes mature into phagocytic macrophages o Neutrophils – account for 50% ­ 70% of peripheral blood leukocytes  First type of cell to appear at site of infection/damage  Squeeze through capillary walls like macrophages  Produce a large range of reactive oxygen radicals and defensine peptides o Natural Killer Cells ­ kill cells that have been infected with virus by inducing apoptosis  of targeted cells  Perforins insert into the membrane and create a pore, which allows granzymes to  enter membrane and activate proteins that induce apoptosis  Attack tumor cells mainly before the cells have had a chance to divide and create  a tumor (most potent defense against cancer) Inflammatory response to infection/tissue injury  Can be either localized or systemic  Acute response: starts rapidly and lasts for a relatively short amount of time  Chemical alarm signals released (histamine, prostaglandins, bradykinin) cause vasodilation and  induce edema by by increasing permeability of capillaries o Increased blood flow to area causes warmth and red­coloring o Swelling puts pressure on nerve­endings, which leads to pain and some loss of function  Pus is a mixture of dead/dying pathogens, tissue cells, and neutrophils  Acute­phase response: increased body temperature (IL­I causes neurons in the hypothalamus to  raise body temp several degrees above normal  Fever causes the liver and spleen to store iron; this reduces the blood level of iron, that of which  bacteria needs in order to grow o Excessive heat can denature critical enzymes, causing high fevers to be hazardous Complement system  A group of approximately different proteins that circulate freely in blood plasma  Usually occur in innactive form and enters tissues during inflammatory response  Activated by mannose­binding lectin protein (MBL) or by a complex series of reactions that  involve charged species on the surface of pathogens


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