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PROFESSOR: Elyse Hurtado
Cognitive Psychology
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This 49 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eureka on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY250 at University of Miami taught by Hurtado in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 04/23/16
Chapter 5—Short Term Memory Early Memory Research  Ebbinghaus (1880) - learning and forgetting curves o First research, scientific study on memory o Himself is the only subject in the research; did memory trials every day month by month; test his own memory ability and retrieval; he memorized nonsense 3 letters trials, not real words, no meaning; He memorized all the letters, and then test how many times need to cost to rememorized them again when different times go by. o Method of savings: you memorize more easily if you memorized before. o Learning Curve: learning improve with experiences; at the beginning, we learn best (steep curve), retention takes high early on; o Forgetting Curve: usually forget at the beginning, then level off o The Ebbinghaus Learning Curve The graph shows how many times Ebbinghaus needed to look at lists of different lengths before he could recall them perfectly. The sharp elbow in the curve at 7 items reflects the maximum he could store in STM. This discontinuity holds for any list as long as the individual items are unrelated.  William James (1890) - primary and secondary memory o First distinguish between short-term/long-term memory; he call them primary/ secondary memory o Primary memory (short-term memory): the initial repository in which information is available to conscious inspection, attention and introspection o The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two — George Miller (1950’s)  Capacity of short-term memory: the limited capacity of short-term memory; digit span: how many numbers you can memorize in the short-term memory in a period of time. Phone number 7 digits  Chunking: chunking things together improves memory, cause could use one hint to memorize one chunk. The dash in phone numbers; what we have learned and stored in LTM can play a useful role in retaining information in STM.  Research: most people can remember 7 numbers in one trial or less; 8 numbers need to take two trials to be memorized o Secondary memory (long-term memory): information cannot be retrieved without initiating active cognitive process; not in your current consciousness; use some sort of mental processing to go into a long-term memory to get out Atkinson & Shiffrin’s Standard Model (1968)  Sensory memory: like a buffer; info actually is stored in your short-term memory as info come in your senses; very short time; flash of a second and flash of three seconds; not conscious awareness yet;  Info goes from sensory to short-term: when see a thing, you don’t pay attention on it. If you notice the info, it comes into your short-term; Info goes from short-term to long-term: rehearsal; making it meaningful some way; info get encoded  Info can lost in any stores of memory: info in auditory sense store last longer than any other sensory stores  Info lost in sensory memory, also in long-term memory that lot of info in long-term, we never access/retrieve Sensory Memory •    Modality specific – Echoic memory: auditory sensory store, info can stay there about three seconds, the longest one – Iconic memory: eyes; last for a flash of a second; visual sensory store keeps refreshing; – Haptic memory: to touch; last for up two seconds; touch cold, and move away, still feel cold Encoding, Storage and Retrieval  1. Info runs through thalamus into the cortex structure; almost all sensory (auditory, visual, etc.) messages come through the thalamus  4. Amygdala: involved in emotion; info goes there make us respond to highly emotional info  STM locates in the frontal lobe, where the attention is; but another structure in brain is extreme important to STM: hippocampus, if info in the frontal lobe is interesting enough, it’s sensitive to hippocampus who decides weather or not the info get encoding/ move to LTM; damage in hippocampus, people cannot have LTM; also is responsible for retrieving info, bring info back into consciousness.  LTM locates in all of the brain, all the cortex  We don’t know if forgetting is because failed to encoding or retrieving. Short Term Memory Loss Duration of STM: between 17-30 sec (without rehearsal); How long info stay in STM.  Hippocampus in the medial temporal lobe: damage in hippocampus result in STM • Anterograde amnesia: same thing as STM lost • Patient HM: surgery removed hippocampus; implicit memory stores in somewhere different than explicit memory; he can paly the piano and know this memory unconsciously; he cannot get memory consciously; over years and years, he know the condition of his memory problem, and the way he learned that is through his implicit memory • Clive Wearing Decay Theory • Brown (1958); Peterson & Peterson (1959): Brown Peterson methodology: study duration of STM – Remember a trigram: 3 letters. Eg. VZN 823 – Count backwards by three: let subjects to count backwards by three (cut the rehearsal part, test exact STM); take effort on working memory; eg: 822 821 820… time goes by – Recall interval: recall by different length of time (1,3,6… sec.) • Findings – STM decays over time – Conclusion: Duration of STM is 18 seconds • Problem: subjects counting backwards three numbers not just spend time, but also take brain resources; the test itself causes interference. So the info lost in STM is due to spans of time or due to interference (been replaced by other info, three numbers)? Retroactive interference • Another finding: ever time they did a new trail to one subject, the performance declined (trails by trails, worse by worse); the first trail interferes the memory ability of second trail—proactive interference Proactive and Retroactive Interference • Retroactive – counting backwards is interference: Retroactive interference: the new info interfere the ability to learn the old info. Eg: get new phone number, but cannot remember the old one. • Proactive – multiple trials of Brown-Peterson task: Proactive interference: the old info interfere the ability to learn the new info. Proactive interference builds up overtime Release from Proactive Interference • Wickens (1972) Subjects learn a list of fruits over multiple trails, and then given recall test; finding: with each trial, performance declines; at the first three trials, subjects learn fruits, then the forth they change category to vegetables or meats or flowers or… the finding is that the more dissimilar category is, the more performance improves on the forth trail—called Release from PI; PI builds up over multiple trails, if you change the category, the performance improves; similar category, less release. – Multiple trials results in PI – Release from PI – change category and performance improves Decay versus Interference • Waugh and Norman (1965) – Subjects given lists of digits to remember – Probe-digit method: give the probe, and subjects need to tell what number comes after it – Digits presented fast or slow: blue line: one word per sec, present words slowly; red line: 4 words per sec, present fast – Finding—Interference Theory • If Decay theory is correct, present words faster, get better recall. However, the rate of presentation did not affect much of the probability of recalling as the decay theory would suggest. • Interference theory: recall would be a function of the number of intervening items/ the position of the probe; numbers at the end of the list (less interferences) will be memorized very well; numbers at the beginning of the list (more interferences) would have more interferences and not be recalled  Interference Theory: Waugh and Norman conclusions (1965): Support for Interference theory; Dismissed importance of decay (time)  Current interpretation (see Model): Small effect of decay; Large effect of interference Short Term Memory Retrieval In long-term memory, if you try to recall something, you find the answer and stop looking—don’t do the exhaustive search, do terminal search STM works in a different way, Sternberg believes we do exhaustive search in STM, look through everything in STM • Sternberg (1966, 2004) – Memory sets varied from 1 to 6 items – Short term memory scanning – probe (yes) or (no) response – Interested in response time varied by the size of sets  Potential Searches—possible different outcomes, based on the location of probes - A - parallel search: searching every thing in the STM at the exact same time, whether or not you find the probe; doing two things at once - B - serial self-terminating search: one item in the set, Y/N are same; six items in the set, response depends on 1. If probe locates in memory set. 2. The location of the probe in memory set; stop looking when finds the answer - C - serial exhaustive search: whether or not you find the probe in the memory set, you search everything, not terminate  Sternberg Findings - He found evidence of serial exhaustive search Sternberg Process Model • Mental steps occur sequentially and operate independently • Whether or not you get the probe, the response time depends on memory set sizes • Limitation: another possible explanation: could be parallel search, search all the items at once, but each additional item slow down the whole system Serial Position Effect: • The beginning and the end of a list of words are mist likely to be remembered; • Different responses in auditory and visual mode, better recency effect in auditory • Primacy effect • Recency effect is stronger than primacy, because the retroactive interference Effect of List Length • Recency effect, because the end of the list is still in STM • We can remember the beginning of the words list (primacy effect), because these words are encoded into the LTM through active process of rehearsal •    Regardless the list length, we have still strong recency effect; the longer the list is, harder rehearsal and the primacy effect goes down Spacing Effects • Fast presentation VS slow presentation • Slow presentation improves primacy effect, gives more time to rehearsal • No effect on recency effect Effect of Interference • Give subjects a list of words and brown-Peterson test (counting backwards by three) 0,10,30 sec backwards counting impact info in STM • Strong primacy effect: longer retention interval impact info in STM, not related to LTM/ primacy effect • The more longer backwards counting, the more reduce recency effect, knock out STM Effect of Delayed Recall • Give a list of words, then ask recall next day, next week, next month • Immediate recall has strong recency effect; later recall, recency effect goes away, the primacy effect stays. The power of first impression Chapter 5 –Working Memory STM and Working memory are used to be interchangeable; they’re two distinct aspects of STM Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory: focus on functionality of STM, more than just storage; not only hold info, but also manipulate info • Alan Baddeley - Model of Working Memory (1970’s to 2000’s) • Focus on functionality • Working Memory Components (system) Working memory: if you are trying to solve a problem in head, doing something requires thinking; eg. Reading needs working memory to understand the meaning; part of STM - Central executive: in charge, controlling attention - Phonological loop: subsystem - Visuo-spatial scratch pad: subsystem - Episodic Buffer Central Executive • Controls and regulates attention and inhibition • Allocates to the subsystems: tell Phonological loop and Visuo- spatial scratch pad what to do • Integrates with long term memory: and the episodic buffer • Executive function occurs in frontal lobe prefrontal cortex; location of STM (hippocampus) is in frontal lobe the prefrontal cortex Prefrontal cortex Central Executive Demonstration • PASAT – Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task • • 1. Add two numbers 2. Keep to track previous presenting number 3. Inhabit the previous number you tapped in—working memory works Phonological Loop (PL): for verbal and auditory information • PL - verbal/auditory processing • Two components - Phonological store: storage aspect; do noting with info; info in the store would be forgotten unless it actively rehearsal/ refreshed; the inner ear - Articulatory loop: the part is responsible for refresh memory in order to keep using it; refresh memory—working aspect - Sub-vocalization: remember the phone number and said the phone number to your self over and over again—use sub- vocalization to keep refreshing info Visuospatial Sketchpad (VSS): for visual and spatial info • VSS - visual processing: eg: picture your house, ask how many windows: when you retrieve mental imagery and your mind can manipulate that imagery spatially that is visuospatial sketchpad • Two components (Logie, 1995) - Visual cache – “what”: there has windows, visual aspect, more storage are o Temporary store: storage area; responsible for what - Inner scribe – “where”: more spatial aspect, move around house and get where windows are; o Refreshes visual cache Support for Working Memory Model • Two tasks using the same working memory system cannot be performed simultaneously: o VSS and PL are two independent capacities and located in two different area of brain; cannot perform two same subsystems at the same time. Cannot perform two verbal tests at the same time • Two tasks using different working memory systems can be performed simultaneously: two different subsystems can work at the same time • Baddeley & Hitch (1974) - Subjects given VSS decision task: ask does A follow B or does B follows A - Simultaneous digit span task (PL): give 6 digits to memorized - Findings – subjects made no more errors (take slightly longer time, compare to subjects doing digit span task alone) • Baddeley and Hitch (1974) - Subjects given visual search task (VSS) - Simultaneous digit span task (PL) - Findings - spatial task performance unchanged by verbal task • Brooks (1968) – Navigate around a mental image: ask subjects to have mental image “F”, and navigate from the asterisk—use VSS – Is this corner at the extreme top or extreme bottom? • Point – VSS: point to yes or no • Speak – PL: speak yes or no – Findings - subjects took considerably longer when pointing • Baddeley et al. (2002) – Subjects given VSS memory task: asked to memorize any checkerboards; at the same time, give the spatial test and verbal test – Simultaneous task • Spatial - track a ladybug • Verbal – repeat a sequence of numbers – Findings - ladybug task interfered, digit span did not Phonological Similarity • Conrad & Hull (1964) – Subjects given memory items that sound the same or different – Findings - items that sound similar are more difficult to remember • Serial Recall Demonstration D B C T P G V K F Y L R M Q - Phonological similarity effect: phonological means the word sounds; in the first group of letters, much harder to remember cause all these letter sounds similar - When items are phonological similar, they are difficult to store into the working memory, because you use the phonological loop, everything in there similar sounds confuse you; the phonological similarity effect is the evidence for the Intuitive xistence of the phonological loop Anonymous Yield Embroidery Stem Allegation Wool Prosperity Renovation Subtle The second list is more difficult to be memorized: because 1. The meaning of the words; 2. How commonly the words are used; 3, the word length--how long it takes to pronounce: which means make them harder to remember, because you use articulatory loop as you pronouncing them, you need more capacity in articulatory loop Word Length Effect—how long it takes to pronounce: • Baddeley (1975) – Recall performance is worse when the items take longer to pronounce – Evidence of articulatory loop Evidence of Phonological Loop • Paulesu et al. (1993) – Americans memorized six visually presented English (sounds are associated with) or Korean letters (no sounds associated with,if don’t know Korean) – Used articulatory suppression method: ask subjects to repeat irrelevant speech out loud over and over again which not allow subjects to use the articulatory loop, suppress it • Findings - articulatory suppression impaired performance for English letters but not Korean • Paulesu et al. (1993) – Measured blood flow for English letters: cat scan; flood flow in different brain regions – Findings: PL focuses on the left; VSS most focus on the right • Phonological store - left inferior parietal cortex • Articulatory loop - left inferior frontal cortex; control involved in that makes memory refresh; central executive; closer to the Broca area that is a region in the frontal lobe with functions linked to speech production. Neuroanatomy of Visuospatial Sketchpad • Right posterior parietal lobe – for the visual cache (C2): storage area • Visuospatial sketchpad located in the occipital (visual system), parietal and prefrontal cortex (C1) Organization of the Visual System • Two streams originating in the occipital cortex the largest part of cortex is related to vision – “What pathway” – goes to temporal cortex, specializes in object recognition: object recognition; temporal more response to memory; when see a object, gotta go to the temporal lobe to recognize – “Where pathway” – goes to parietal cortex, specializes in spatial location: parietal cortex helps us understand space, semantic sensory cortex; touch/ math/ spatial skills/ paint rTMS • rTMS - repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation – Applies magnetic pulses – Knocks out electrical activity in targeted area: stimulated brain Visuospatial Neuroscience • Mottaghy et al. (2002) – Two memory tasks • Spatial arrangement of dots (where): where things locate spatially • Photos of faces (what): using visual cache • Finding: Visuospatial Neuroscience – Mottaghy et al. (2002) • rTMS ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (comes form occipitallobe through temporal lobe, “what” pathway ) – ability to remember faces • rTMS dorsolateral prefrontal cortex( “where” pathway) – ability to remember spatial location(dots) Episodic Buffer (was added till 2000) Came up, because some finding in his research cannot be explained; some patients have totally anterograde amnesia and can perform STM recall beyond the capacity of phonological loop; they read a story and could have just been rehearsing and recall story in great details; ST story recall LT story • Integrates information from the other sub-systems • Communicates with long term and short term memory: make info more rich and complex; • Includes conscious awareness and a sense of time Chapter 6: Long Term Memory • Explicit (declarative): when talk about two categories, they overlap - Episodic (biographical events): personal past, your history; eg. Ate what in breakfast; different from each other o Retrospective explicit memory: your personal memory from past o Prospective explicit memory: your ability to remember to do something in the future; part of plan - Semantic (words, ideas, concepts): fact, eg. Who’s the president in US; like dictionary; similar to each other • Implicit (no-declarative): unconscious memory - Procedural (skills): ties shoes (use working memory to learn tie shoes, then become implicit memory) - Emotional conditioning: conditioning learned response unconsciously; eg fear of dogs/elevator - Priming effect: the processing of target stimulus is edited or altered by the presentation of previously presented stimulus; eg. The tree word makes processing related words, such as oak, forest activated, the brain spread activation; concept related to tree also get activated, so it’s easier and fast to get the oak - Conditioned reflex: likes Pavlov’s dog; unconsciously Amnesia (apply in both STM/LTM) Here talks about biological reason, Amnesia caused by damage of the brain • Anterograde amnesia: STM lost: inability to make new memory, nothing get encoded; fresh memory only stay within 30 sec— called anterograde amnesia; sometimes last one day or week • Retrograde Amnesia: memory lost in the past; it’s not based on the science that people forget completely in the past; usually, patients know who they are, and what happened is memories lose to the ictus get lost, but the old memories are preserved— called Ribot’s law: memory near to ictus most likely to decay • Has the treatment for amnesia, lots of patients recovered • These two types of amnesia usually occur together; usually don’t see anterograde amnesia all by itself • Some people have retrograde amnesia for auto-biographical information can still retrieve semantic memory • Some people have anterograde amnesia can make new memory for episodic memory, but cannot make new memory for semantic memory; however some cases, people have AA and their semantic memory effect other than episodic, can go college (semantic/episodic are located in different parts of brian) Patient HM • Henry Moliason, 1926 – 2008 – Removed medial temporal lobe including hippocampus – Profound anterograde amnesia, some retrograde Mirror Tracing Task • Milner (1962, 1965) – Patient HM and controls – Multiple trials of mirror tracing: do the opposite what you are thinking – Finding: HM like controls got better with practices, he was able to form new implicit memories; no conscious awareness he did these tasks before; implicit memory is made by different way than explicit memory and does not rely on the hippocampus • Identical implicit learning • HM - no explicit learning Memory and Sleep (sleep consolidate memory) • Takashima et al. (2006) – Visual memory task: show subjects 320 pics. After seeing 320 pics, ask subjects to take naps; after naps, show subjects 80 more pics, then givce subject a recall test – Measured slow wave sleep: during the naps; – Then additional memory items, followed by memory test • Findings - for remote pictures, recall was correlated with slow wave sleep; old pics before the nap recall is correlated with the duration of slow wave sleep; more slow wave subjects got, better remembered pics learned before the nap • Memory Consolidation Takashima et al. (2006, 2009) – Over 90 days: let subjects recall again • Pre-frontal cortex activity increases • Hippocampus activity decreases – Memory retrieval function migrates from hippocampus to cortex – Initially retrieve memory is really dependent on hippocampus; these memory become less and less dependent on hippocampus—that is memory consolidation: memory become permanent/ a actual neural structure in the brain Semantic and Episodic Memory (some info overlap, not clear cut; all in general) • LEFT HEMISPHERE – Semantic memory: more logical; ask questions related to semantic memory, they may know or don’t know; info is retrievable or not retrievable – Seems either immediately available or inaccessible – Relatively permanent – Retrieval is independent of hippocampus • RIGHT HERMISPHERE – Episodic memory: more emotional, personal, self-relevant – More difficult to retrieve: eg. what’s the earliest memory – Relies heavily on the hippocampus HERA Model (specific to episodic memory) • Hemispheric Encoding-Retrieval Asymmetry (Tulving, et al. , 1994, 2003) - Encoding episodic memory – left prefrontal cortex - Retrieval episodic memory – right prefrontal cortex - Evidence of amnesia: if left hemisphere damage, more likely to have anterograde amnesia; right hemisphere damage is more associated with retrograde amnesia Amygdala (located in front of hippocampus) Emotional center of brain/ memory and emotion • Responsible for memory, decision-making, and emotional reactions (fear and anger) • When damaged, emotional content of memory is lost: the memories associated with fear and anger go away; bad at recognizing facial expression • Memories are stored and retrieved with emotional contents; also highly emotional things draw our attention to it and alert us, once alert, our learning memory become enhance • Witness test: if a weapon is involved in an accident, people always remember the weapon which has highly emotional content, we tend to focus on that • Info goes from the front lobe to both STM and amygdala, so we can have emotional reaction; amygdala also communicate with hippocampus which is responsible for regulating heart rate, respiration and pause; that’s why when nervous and anxious, and all these things increase Flashbulb Memories: remarkable vivid memory is typically and highly emotional content that personal relevant; they think their memory is very accurate. Flashbulb Memory Research • Talarico and Rubin (2003) support the accuracy the people think they have comes form flashbulb memory – Tested and retested after various delays about 9-11 and recent events; retest again 1/6/32 weeks later; look both consistent and inconsistent memory – Similar pattern for flashbulb and ordinary memory: similar memory error and lost – Ratings of confidence declined for everyday event but not for flashbulb memory: people believe their flashbulb memory is so true, because people talk about it a lot, rehearsal and elaboration going over and over again. Overconfidence • Talarico and Rubin (2003) – Also reported confidence ratings – Ratings of confidence declined for everyday event but not for flashbulb memory 60 Minutes – Endless Memory • Hyperthymesia • The main difference between these people and anybody else is that we forget; they can remember the same way like we remember yesterday, overtime we forget, but they don’t forget (not because encode) Superior Autobiographical Memory (episodic memory) • Jim McGaugh (2012) – Neuroanatomical differences in nine structures including the amygdala: stored memory with emotional contents – Associated with obsessive-compulsive tendencies: they’re tends to be having obsessive-compulsive behaviors that are linked to their memories; hard to tell the direction (which caused which); – They don’t use memory strategy; memories come to them automatically and naturally Depth of Processing Model Something personal relevant/ process meaningful level are more likely to remember than rote • Craik and Tulving (1975) Ask subjects to process words by structure capacity, phonemic and sentence The sentence processing is the most deep and meaningful – Three different levels of processing, followed by recall test – Three times more likely to recall words used in a sentence Context-Dependent Learning If you have similar context during learning and retrieval and enhance your memory • Smith (1979) – Students given learning task in a distinctive room – Surprise memory test – Findings • Same room – recalled 22% • Different room – recalled 15% • Different room, think about the distinctive room – recall 21.5% – Like eyewitness testimony: when eyewitness is interviewed about particular crime, they ask them to imagine back at the scene of the crime; make memories enhance— encoding specificity Encoding Specificity Definition: when you encoding info, context specific info that encoded along with the memory, and use that context during retrieval, you are enhance likelihood to remember • Marian & Fausey (2006) – English and Spanish bilinguals heard stories and answered questions • Half questions matched the story language: perform better, enhance memory • Half questions mismatched the story language: not remember much • It doesn’t speak so much by bilingualism; they have a lot of cognitive flexibility, manage two languages at the same time Mood Congruence • Bower (1983): more likely to remember in the same state of mind (encode/retrieval) – Subjects induced to feel happy or sad – Given a learning task – Before recall, subjects were primed to feel happy or sad Memory Cues • Tulving & Osler (1968) – Students given a list of words to remember – Half given memory cues at learning, half at recall – Findings • Groups I & IV performed the best – used consistent cues • Groups II & III performed the worst – used inconsistent cues • People in Group IV could make their own cues to make consistent State Dependent Learning • Goodwin, et al. (1969) – Medical students memorized sentences sober or intoxicated – Memory tested either sober or intoxicated – Findings – no benefit in trying to recall while sober if learned while intoxicated Metacognition: thinking about thinking; awareness of your own memory system and what remains in there: two types: feeling of knowing/ tip of the tongue Feeling of Knowing (subject feeling of knowing info, but not right now) (Subjects have the feeling of knowing, hit the buzzer, even though the answer hasn’t come to their head) • Nelson et al. (1984) – Subjects first rated their feeling of knowing – Then asked to circle the answer – Answers were highly correlated with feeling-of-knowing – People who have high level of feeling of knowing are much likely to know the answer; meta memory is much better Feeling of Knowing Who painted the Mona Lisa? (Da Vinci, Galileo) 1. What is the largest desert on earth? (Gobi, Sahara) 2. What is the capital of New York? (New York City, Albany) 3. What is the northernmost state in the continental US? (Minnesota, New Hampshire) 4. Who is the primary author of the Declaration of Independence? (Jefferson, Hancock) 5. Who was the first person to walk on the moon? (Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin) Tip of the Tongue (you cant recall it, but you know you know it; subject feeling of knowing a word, but not right know) - Happened in every language includes sigh language (tip of the finger) Chapter 6: Memory Errors Memory Errors • Errors of omission: to not do something; not doing something you are suppose to do; don’t remember something you should remember—forget - Causes of forgotten memory: illness/ accident/ amnesia; time/old age - Repressed memory: something happened to someone is so traumatic, they put it away and repressed memory; victims had abused experience in the court and be asked and suggested to recall the scene, which more likely to be forced memory and create false memory; now lawyer and psychologist are trained to not ask the suggestive questions • Errors of commission: to do something; dong something you are not suppose to do; you remember something that is incorrect; false memory—distort; - Confabulation; distortion of memory without intend to deceive - There are several effects caused us to misremember info o Misinformation effect: giving misinformation about particular event can cause people falsely remember o Imagination information: source misattribution; just imagine something; in dream or real; confused the origin of the memory o Consistency bias: tendency to reconstruct (consistent) the past to fit the present; unhappy spouse said their marriage is never good, that’s not true, they remember the past based on how they feel today. Source Misattribution (source means origin of memory; incorrectly memorized the source of memory; the things to contribute the memory errors most) Source monitoring: monitoring the origin of memory; try to remember pushing the button today or just thinking about pushing the button; cause many memory errors; • External: to external sources; try to remember friend A or B told you; happened, not sure the sources • Internal: in your own head; try to think about if you said something or thought about something; whether happened or not • Reality monitoring: (overlap internal) imply one thing happened, one thing didn’t happened; thought part of TV show occurred in the real world; whether happened or not DRM Demonstration: instructor reading 15 words; subjects wrote down as much as they remembered; all words related to sleep, but the word sleep not on the list DRM Paradigm • Deese (1959) – 84% falsely recalled the critical lure ‘sleep’ – False recall rate varies - average 44%: depends on the list (doctor 60%/ king 10%) depends on how commonly the word used/ how easil the critical lure word associated with other words on the list – Example of source monitoring error: who falsely recalled sleep, thought the sleep was on the list—memory distorted Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) Paradigm • Roediger and McDermott (1995) – Distinguished between actually remembering and just knowing (logical sense) – Subjects reported critical lures as ‘actually remembered’ 72% of the time—memory distorted; – Associative mode memory: associated the word of the network, like a neuron in a network; activation of associated words cause spreading activation associated words (critical lure word)—use association can help our memorization Misleading Questions • Loftus & Palmer (1974) – Questioned eye-witnesses – The language of the question influenced speed estimates and likelihood of reporting broken glass: eg, how fast the car was going when they contacted/hit/humped/collided/smashed into each other? Collided/smashed these words change the way subjects actually remembered the event; estimated speed went up with the strength of words got more intense; also ask whether there was a broken grasses or not (not real), however, subjects are most likely to falsely report (when asked in word smashed) Post-Event Misinformation effect • Loftus, Miller & Burns (1978) Subjects witnessed an event and then gave misinformation and to see how that change their memory – Pedestrian accident – Slides – half stop sign, half yield sign – Descriptions – half stop sign, half yield sign: police officer either described a stop sign or a yield sign; saw and question are inconsistent Loftus Findings • Loftus, Miller & Burns (1978) Control group given the natural information during the description (nothing about stop or yield sign), 60% accurate, middle line, memory declines overtime; consistent group given consistent info that reinforce memory; post-event misinformation distorts memory – Consistent post event misinformation reinforced memory – Inconsistent information distorted memory Implanted Memory • Loftus and Pickrell (1995): study can autobiographical info be distorted as well; collage students were told to participate a study about memory of child heard events; given four stories to read and the events are supposed to happen to them; in fact, three really happened and one is false (lost in the shopping mall) and ask subjects to write about each event – Writing task – Three real events, one false event – 25% falsely remembered details of being lost in a shopping mall; create a memory to consistent with that they should have but never happened Doctored Photos (you see yourself in a pic, but it was not actually happened) • Wade, Garry, et al. (2002) – Subjects asked repeatedly about riding in a hot air balloon: fist time ask, subjects don’t remember that, but after repeated trials, a couple days later, over half subjects said remember and describe in details o Over repeated trials is the indication; the first time you heard it, does not sound familiar to you; second time you heard stated to think it might…. –source misattribution – On follow up over 50% report remembering Mouse Trap Study • Ceci et al. (1994) study children – Asked children same questions repeatedly for 11 weeks – All of the children falsely remembered – This happened to adult too, children’s memories are just more vulnerable—easier to be distorted Forced to Lie • Zaragoza et al. (2001) Subjects are forced to lie; unconsciously lie; positive reinforcement; they know it’s a lie – Interviewed about a Disney movie • Forced-confabulation group: they told the answer every question, even if it did not happened • Control group: free group, – Experimenter gave positive or neutral feedback • Neutral feedback: experimenter said OK • Positive feedback: experimenter said yes, that’s right - Finding: • The free group did not recall any misinformation • First confabulation group (neutral feedback): 27% memory error, month later • 50% subjects recall false when not only forced to lie, but also give positive feedback • lying creates false memories, even if you know you’re lying; positive reinforcement increases people’s confidents in the misinformation Positive Reinforcement Given a lineup of pictures and ask subjects to point out pedestrian (real Pedestrian not in the lineup) eyewitness are most likely to pick a guy who are most similar to the pedestrian • Zaragoza et al. (2001) – Free group – no errors – Forced-confabulation group • Recalled 27% of false information when given neutral feedback (policeman are blind and cannot give the feedback; or doing on computers) • Recalled 55% of false information when given positive feedback (policeman said correct) Eyewitness Memory Errors: following causes • Under stress: stress in witness crime; focus highly on the weapon; pressure form interviewer • Leading questions: interviewers ask suggestive questions • Plausible misinformation: given • After long delays • Repeated questioning • Positive feedback • Over-confidence: in particular children, confidence is not correlated to accuracy The Cognitive Interview: technique improves eyewitness testimony; reduce memory errors • Geiselman et al. (1992, 1997) – Return to the scene: bring eyewitness back to the scene— encoding specificity: cannot return back, call interviewee imagine back to the scene – Report using free recall: ask open-end questions, tell me everything or specific questions as it’s necessary, what color of shirts that person wearing – Reverse time-sequence: witness report the sequence of the event they remembered in reversed chronological order; cause if it is a lie or incorrect, witness cannot tell backward; if you narrate a story from the beginning till end, there is a gap you don’t remember, we have tendency to fill in the gap to make coherent story and may unconscious includes inaccurate events; reverse time- sequence eliminate the urge to fill in the gap • Supports a 45% increase in correct recollections Chapter 8: Mental Imagery Mnemonic Methods: Memory enhancing techniques (rehearsal doesn’t not a good strategy, only keep fresh STM) • First letter technique: pick the first letter • Method of loci: songs/ stories; imagine a sense (a house) • Method of story: use films, links and images to narrate the story • Peg word mnemonic Peg Word Mnemonic 1. Pre-memorize a set of rhyming objects as pegs 2. Associate each word with peg object 3. Use mental imagery for encoding and retrieval Testing Effect Reason for testing: we learned while taking the test; you learned better when you testing than when you studying • Roediger & Karpicke (2006) – Students read an assigned essay; Randomly assigned study group and test group; given retest periodic intervals (5minutes, 2days later and a week later) – Slight studying advantage at 5 minutes – Testing advantage at 2 days and 1 week – Learning is enhanced by taking tests – Flash cards—testing your self Study in groups:  If already knew the materials, it’s good to study in the group; reinforce learning and discussing  If the materials you don’t know, it’s better to study alone Strategies for Studying • Total time hypothesis: it’s not a good strategy; the amount time you put in study is not as much significant as how you use the time, the leaning hobbits • Retrieval practice effect: testing yourself; practice retrieving the information—very effective strategy • Distributed practice effect: when you studying for a test; its better to study per hour 4 days than 4 hours in one day; distributed study time over multiple sections and multiple days Solve the Riddle Brothers and sisters have I none; that man's father is my father's son  Try to use mental imagery some strategies to figure out That Man’s Father • Casey (1993) – 896 college students given variation of brothers and sisters riddle – Only 17% solved the original problem – The point is using mental imagery can help solve this types of problem • Given different version of this types of riddle, and train subjects using mental imagery, they found performance improves Visualizer-Verbalizer Some people are visualizers and some are verbalizers, some in the middle. Most of us have tendency to think the problem in the one way than the other • Verbalizers – prefer to process using verbal and logical means (left brain) • Visualizers – prefer to process using imagery (right brain) – Static or iconic imager: create vivid concrete and detailed images – Spatial imager: more complexity; involved moving parts; objects in space; such as spatial rotation; good at math and sciences Pulley System Demonstration (true or false) 1. The upper pulley is attached to the ceiling; true 2. The upper pulley turns counterclockwise when the rope is pulled; false 3. The middle pulley turns counterclockwise when the rope is pulled; true Using spatial imagery Mentally animate in order to see whether counterclockwise or not Spatial Imagery • Hegarty (1992) – Spatial questions take longer than visual questions – Increase in error rate with increasing mental animation – Subjects mentally animate only to the degree necessary to answer the question: using self-terminating search Mental Imagery Mental representation of stimulus, when the stimulus are not physically presented; • Modality specific: most mental imagery is visual, but it’s modality specific—you can have auditory, factor, motoric mental imagery; eg. Image your mom’s voice; smell of flowers • Exclusively top-down processing Imagery and Memory • Schnorr & Atkinson (1969) – Compared rote learning and mental imagery – Mental imagery group had better recall Unitization Make a unit in memory: use the method of loci or peg; like chunking • Bower (1970) – Compared rote learning, separation imagery and interacting imagery – Given recognition test (no difference, all did well) and recalled test – Interacting group free-recalled twice as many word pairs Imagery and Performance Athlete use metal imagery as part of training; cause it enhance athlete performance • Roure et al. (1999) – Imagery group (imagine play three times a week for two months + regular practices) versus control group (regular practices, don’t use mental imagery) – Only the imagery group significantly improved performance, also increase arousal and the arousal (motivation, interests, energy) predict their performance; Imagery and Motivation • Martin & Hall (1995) – Beginner golfers given training program – Mental imagery group showed the most motivation, participation and improvement Visual Memory • Shepard (1967); Nickerson (1968) – Memory test for 600 photos – Immediate recognition – 98% – Recognition after one year – 63% Picture Superiority Effect Concepts learned from pictures are more memorable than concepts learned by words Show subjects over 600 photos and doing recognition test to see who well people recognized these pics after one year; finding 69% picts were remembered • Dual-code hypothesis (Paivio, 1971, 1986): pictures represent both verbally and visually; when you see a pic, encoding pic by both verbal and visual representation, cause pic has meaning; – Words alone generate verbal code – Imagery generates a visual code – Picture generates both verbal and visual codes – Abstract concepts: primary represent verbally; eg. Liberty —abstract object; the meaning of the liberty is verbal concept – Concrete concepts: more visual concept/representation; table—concrete object •    Sensory semantic theory Imagery has two advantages: sensory and semantic – Pictures are distinct—sensory – Pictures are easily associated with meaning—semantic Neurological Evidence—support dual-code hypothesis Put subjects in fMRI, let subjects learn words, faces • Kelley (1998); Golby et al. (2001) – fMRI while memorizing words, pictures, faces and patterns • Words activated left hemisphere • Faces activated right hemisphere • Patterns and scenes activated both hemispheres— dual encoding Meaning and Memory • Klatzky and Rafnel (1976) – Droodle – abstract drawing – Subjects shown droodles with and without labels: “pig in a fog” – Droodles with labels were significantly more memorable – Support dual-code hypothesis; image itself + meaning; also support sensory semantic theory: giving meaning become more memorable Sensory Semantic Theory • Nelson, Metzler, and Reed (1974) – Memory test – photographs, line drawings (detailed, more distinctive or not), and verbal descriptions – Subjects remembered the line drawings and photographs equally well; all there photos remembered better than verbal descriptions – Images do improve memory, but it not affect distinctiveness; pics are more memorable, because they are more associated with meaning Imagery Debate Mental imagery represents by all top-down processing; how we present imagery • Analog code: just like a visual representation; like actual perception take places; eg: the clock represents time; map represents geography; clock is a visual representation of time • Propositional code: the way we represent mental imagery is more like language; it’s abstract and not visual; no perception involved; more conceptual; • Eg. google GPS give both text (turn right… propositional code)and map (high light route; analog code) Image Manipulation • Kosslyn (1975) – Imagine a rabbit next to an elephant or a rabbit next to a fly; and ask questions about rabbit (what’s the color of rabbits.. etc.) – Faster responses with the rabbit next to a fly: rabbit is really big and answer quickly – Take longer time to answer a rabbit next to an elephant or a rabbit next to a fly, we have to zoom in – Support Analog code; the way we store the mental imagery is very perceptual Imagery Ability Given subjects test for visual imagery ability. Separated High/ low imagery; Ask subjects to imagine angles • Paivio (1978) – High versus low imagers asked to compare clock angles – Smaller differences between two angles, longer response times—support Analog code – High imagery subjects respond more quickly Which has a smaller angle, 3:20 or 7:25? Which has a smaller angle, 1:25 or 8:45? Mental Rotation Mental rotated R to determine if facing correctly; Measure both response time and accuracy • Cooper & Shepard (1973) – Subjects used the shortest direction to upright R – Larger degrees of rotation take longer – The degrees of rotation are correlated with amount of time takes subjects to respond – Subjects rotated clockwise or counterclockwise (depends on which way upright quickly) Which R is facing correctly? 150⁰ rotation to the right (longer)80⁰ rotation to the left 3D Mental Rotation • Shepard and Metzler (1971) – Mentally rotate three-dimensional images – Larger degree of rotation increases response time – Picture-plane pairs (2D) and depth pairs (3D) behave similarly A are same: two dimensional rotation—called picture plane rotation B are same: three dimensional rotation—called depth plane rotation C are different Mental rotation effects: support for the Analog code  Practice the skill, get faster  Sex difference: men are spatial, women are verbal (slight difference)  Age effect: old people slow down, decline cognition  Sign language: perform these metal rotation tests more quickly  Born blind: how do they perform the mental rotation if they don’t have mental images; they perform mental rotation in the same way we do, mental rotation dose not depend visual experiences; wooden cut out Limitations of the Analog Code Which of the following hidden shapes are parts of the star? All of them • Reed and Johnsen (1975) – Subjects performed slightly better than chance, correct 55% of the time ABC all in the original image Demonstration Ambiguous Figures • Slezak (1991) – Only one third were able to identify other animals - Imagery do not always function as mental pictures; and there are limitations for the analog code Perceiving and Imagining • Kosslyn (1971) – Some subjects rotated physically with their own hands; other objects watched machine doing the same thing – Performed mental rotation of previous object in the PET scanner – Subjects who had rotated by hands showed activation in the motor cortex while imagining; Motor cortex is a part of brain make you move; doing and imaging doing activated the same motor cortex – Subjects saw machine rotated the object and their motor cortex was not activated – Support the analog code; support why imagery works Mirror System Study monkey’s Motor cortex; the monkey’s motor cortex lights up while watching other person perform the activity; see somebody do something, we could relate to that person because we brain fired in the similar way • First identified in motor cortex (Rizzolatti, 1999) • Mirror neurons – Simulate other people’s actions, intentions and emotions – Neurological basis for empathy and social learning • Memory may be embedded in mirror system: mirror system reflect something happened past, when we think about memory and we experience the memory in some extent • Mirror neurons not just motor activities, but also emotion/thoughts/believes our brain emulating--Neurological system built up help me to understand you


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