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2/23/15 notes

by: Janey Lyon

2/23/15 notes GEOG 3230

Janey Lyon
The U
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

These notes cover dendrochronology and the guest lecture.
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janey Lyon on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 3230 at University of Utah taught by Carter in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Pyrogeography in Geography at University of Utah.

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Date Created: 02/27/15
Monday February 23 2015 Monday 22315 Dendrochronology Conceptual model of charcoal production and deposition Types of corers include Livingston sediments corer Freeze corer Gravel corer Vibra core Subsampling sediment cores look at everything in the mud to try and reconstruct a story Tools that help solve this are pollen phytoliths charcoal macrofossils and bee es What does charcoal data tell us Larger charcoals represent local signals of history Smaller charcoals get uplifted and transported so they give us an idea of burning at a regional scale They tell us the amount of biomass that is burning graph it up showing depth on the y axis and particles across the x This will show concentration We can see fluctuations through the layers so we can see how many particles are coming into the particular region So when we see a peak in concentration we want to understand what happened at that time in history radiocarbon dating turns those umbers into actual ages This gives us influx background Small particles travel further and easier This graph represents that regional charcoal and a continuous input So how can we figure out fire events in that particular region Charcoal peaks reveal events This helps us understand frequency of episodes over 1000 years Fire Frequency Definitions fire episode identified when CHAR exceeds background Pollen data gives us an explanation of what kind of fuel was used Monday February 23 2015 Case example Milford Flat Fire Utah July 2007 Regional study sites the global charcoal database all these sites show an overall trend of fire activity increase over the north hemisphere Slight decline over the south hemisphere STUDY VOCAB WORDS GUEST LECTURER Megafires in the Americas causes and consequences what are the causes of big fires general factors like draught fire regime change weather conditions what are the consequences many ecological issues species adaptations air pollution death national disasters How do mega fire events change human perceptions policies or management Pros and Cons emissions GHG s albedo carbon vegetation biological diversity health effects AVG 39 Gigatons of carbon are created yearly Fires of 1910 Idaho panhandle into western Montana Over 1 million hectors burned Biggest fire of the century High winds caused quickly moving fires so many trees just burned for a few minutes and tipped over All the national forest data from the area burned and it all gets averaged together creates a standardized area burned index This also shows severe low fire years During the midcentury there is a gap in fires Then we can compare years similar to 1910 and choose the other big fire years Perhaps we can find a pattern emerging High burn years compared to low burn years High burn high summer temps low summer precip and low snow water equivalent Low area burn low summer temps sufficient precip and much better snow water equivalent It is clear that draught provokes fires and snow content keeps fires at bay Causes for 1910 fires warm spring Monday February 23 2015 summerdraught low snowpack avg summer temp Satellite data or forest survey maps are used to research these fires between 50100 years Fire scars help us go back 300500 years Sedimentary charcoal records reveal histories greater than 10000 years Climate controls of wildfire warm continental and dry air move through during dry years Maritime weather movement occurs during wet years High fire years have heavy dry winds moving Low fire years are bringing in lots of moisture Mechanistic causes enhanced ridge over the NorthWest US increased subsidence heat the atmosphere offshore flow drier than normal soil moisture decrease near surface relative humidity ignition Yellowstone fires let is burn policy kept them from understanding that heavy dry winds were on there way and that the fire would easily move past park boundaries Amazon fires of 2010 The Pantonel is a huge natural wetland area in Bolivia Until the arrival of firewielding humans rain forts trees and plants were under little threat from fire forests survive because trees can tap soil moisture down as far as 20 meters lightening is the only natural fire trigger that is always followed by rain August 2010 47 000 burning 4 million hectares burned severe draught 10000 years of fire in Amazonia Monday February 23 2015 5 000 years ago there were a lot more fires than there are today We are seeing the lowest amount in history now that we can compare it to 10000 years ago Mega events that were worse than 2010 happened at least every 2000 years Consequences 1910 restructuring of us atonal forest service policy and public perception 1988 fires destroyed yellowstone but were very good for the land and helped us learn a lot 2010 Bolivia and Brazil increase fire suppression funding and targeting farmers What else reach beyond the scientific community Redesign a data interface develop new tools and research relationships to increase access of this info for the public expanding regional understanding of fireclimatehuman dynamics


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