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CHE 8A: Week 4 Notes

by: Mackenzie Hayes

CHE 8A: Week 4 Notes CHE 8A

Mackenzie Hayes

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These notes cover everything from lecture, with excerpts from the lecture notes and diagrams
organic chemistry - brief
Sarah Lievens
Class Notes
Organic Chemistry
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mackenzie Hayes on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 8A at University of California - Davis taught by Sarah Lievens in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see organic chemistry - brief in Biological Sciences at University of California - Davis.

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Date Created: 04/23/16
CHE 8A: Week 4 Notes (4/18) ● Functional Groups ○ Pattern of bonds around a single central atom (usually Carbon) ○ Particular patterns have predictable reactions, chem + phys properties ● Just C/H: Hydrocarbons ● Has non-C/H: all sigma bonds ● Has non-C/H: pi bonds ● Can have multiple functional groups ○ If attached to the same C → same functional group ● Start to talk about functional groupsAlkanes ○ Alkanes ■ C+H only, all sigma (single) bonds ■ Basic skeleton of organic molecules ■ 3 general categories ● 1 - linear → straight chains of C (2 ends) ○ Formula: C(n)H(2n+2) ● 2 - branched → more ends ○ Formula: C(n)H(2n+2) ● 3 - rings → cyclic chains (0 ends) ○ Formula: C(n)H(2n) (2 less H than others) ● Two ways of naming: ○ Common names → nicknames (water) ○ IUPAC names → f ​ormal (long and descriptive) ■ Alkane nomenclature based off linear systems:*memorize* ● Nomenclature for rings: (can also be basic alkanes) ○ Count # C in polygon ○ Use same name as linear with prefix “cyclo” ○ Need at least 3 C’s for it to be a ring (4/20) ● Nomenclature ● Branched Chains have multiple (3+) ends ○ Longest carbon chain = main chain ○ Branches = substituents ■ CH4 → linear; only one way to write ■ CH3CH3 → linear as well ■ CH3CH2CH3 → propane; linear ● Branches occur when 4+ carbons are present ○ Isomers have the same formula but are different molecules ○ Constitutional isomers have different bonds ■ C4H10 → butane ● 2 kinds of Carbon: 1° C (primary) and 2° C (secondary) ● CH3 → 1° C; bonded to one​other C (end) ● CH2 → 2° C; bonded to two ​ther C’s (middle) ● Isobutane → “iso-” = other; common name ● C5H12 → start with butane / isobutane (add on) ○ CH → 3° C (tertiary) bonded to 3 other C’s (middle) ● Common names too complicated past 5 Carbons ● IUPAC ● 1. Longest chain of carbons is the main chain ○ Named like normal linear chains ● 2. Extra branches become substituents ○ Named as alkyl groups ● 3. Number Carbon Chains so that alkyl group gets same # ○ 1st difference counts ○ L → R : 3,5,6 * (3 < 4 so we use L → R numbering) ○ R → L : 4,5,7 ● 4. Address substituents with C # ● 5. List substituents in ABC order in front of main chain name ○ Use “di, tri, tetra” if needed, but don’t count in ABC order ○ 5-isopropyl-3,6-dimethyl nonane ● 6. Punctuation ○ #, # → get comma ○ #, A → get hyphen ○ ABC → no punctuation, no spaces ○ Halogens: ■ Give Haloalkanes names like alkanes ● Just need additional branch names ■ F → fluoro- ■ Cl → chloro- ■ Br → bromo- ■ I → iodo- ● NAMING ALKYL GROUPS: ○ A lot like naming alkanes ○ 1. Find # of C’s in longest chain ○ 2. Drop the -ane (whole molecule) ending and ass -yl (part of it) ending ● CH4 + C2H6 → both only have one kind of H ○ Doesn’t matter which H gets removed and replaced w/ a bond ● w/ 3+ C in alkyl group = get multiple kinds of H ○ 1° H → attached to 1° C ○ 2° H → attached to 2° C ○ 3° H → attached to 3° C ○ 3 Carbons: ○ 4+ Carbons = lots of options: ● Memorize Table 3.2*


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