Class Notes week of 04/18
Class Notes week of 04/18 BSC 2023
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleonora Sacks on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2023 at Florida International University taught by Paul Sharp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
4/23/16 1:35 PM Reproductive system: • Male reproductive anatomy: • Accessory organs: paired seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands and the single prostate gland. They produce the bulk of semen o Seminal vesicles: convoluted structure attached to the vas deferens. Adds nutrients and 60% of fluid to semen o Prostate gland: gland located around the male urethra below the urinary bladder. Adds secretions to semen that help activate sperm o Bulbourethral glands: 2 small structures located below the prostate gland. Contributes mucus-containing fluid to semen. Neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra prior to ejaculation. Lubricates glans penis. • Semen: fluid mixture that contains sperm and secretions of the male accessory reproductive glands. The pH is of 7 (basic), this is because the vagina is pH 4-5, so the semen has this pH because it will neutralize the vagina's pH. Transport medium, nutrients and chemicals that protect and activate sperm. 2-5ml (a teaspoon) fluid containing 50-100 million sperm per ml. • • Chief phases of male sexual response: o Erection: enlargement and stiffening of the penis allows penis to penetrate vagina § Parasympathetic reflex is triggered during sexual arousal: parasympathetic=relaxation of the body, so if you are stressed there's going to be a parasympathetic reflex so that you can get aroused (if you are stressed it's harder to get aroused) § Promotes local release of nitric oxide that relaxes smooth muscle § Causes arterioles to dilate in erectile tissue § Vascular spaces of erectile bodies fill with blood compressing veins. o Ejaculation: propulsion of semen from the male duct system, occurs when impulses provoking erection reach critical level, spinal reflex is initiated. Aka climax/orgasm: generates intense pleasure, muscle contraction, rapid heartbeat, elevated blood pressure. 1. Reproductive ducts and accessory organs contract releasing contents to urethra 2. Bladder sphincter muscle constricts 3. Muscles of penis undergo rapid contractions to propel semen from urethra • Female reproductive system: • External: o Vulva: all of the external genitals, consists of: § Mons pubis: fatty rounded area covered with pubic hair § Labia majora: posterior from mons pubis and consists of 2 elongated, hair covered fatty skin folds. Female equivalent of the scrotum § Labia minora: 2 thin, fair free skin folds enclosed by the labia majora. Female equivalent of the ventral penis. § Vestibule: area enclosed by the labia minora, has the urethra and vaginal openings § Clitoris: small protruding structure composed largely of erectile tissue (meaning it enlarges during sexual stimulation-2 to 3 times as large) located anterior to the vestibule. Female equivalent of the glans penis. § Prepuce of the clitoris: hooded skin fold of the clitoris formed by the junction of the labia minora folds § • Internal: consists of: • • Ovary: 2 ovaries, flank the uterus on either side, female gonad, produces eggs and the female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone) • Uterine tubes/ fallopian tubes/ oviducts: tube that transports eggs to the uterus: o They extend fro the uterus to the ovaries but are not attached to the ovaries o Fimbria: finger like projections of uterine tube that sweep over ovary o When the egg bursts out of the ovary during ovulation it is swept into the oviduct by the fimbria and beating of cilia that line oviducts. o Egg lives from 6-24 hours unless fertilization occurs. o Fertilization usually takes place in the oviduct. Egg+sperm=zygote. A zygote is not enough to get pregnant, successful implantation has to happen. • Uterus (womb): hollow, thick walled organ located in the female pelvis where it receives retains and nourished a fertilized ovum. o Developing embryo arrives at uterus several days after fertilization o Implantation occurs when embryo embeds in prepared uterine lining o Endometrium: mucous membrane lining the interior surface of the uterus o Cervix: lower end of uterus, enters the vagina at nearly a right angle. • Vagina: organ that leads from the uterus to the vestibule and serves as the birth canal and organ of sexual intercourse in females. • A pregnancy test looks for the presence of a hormone that's secreted by the zygote (this hormone tells the body to prepare for pregnancy) 4/23/16 1:35 PM Cont. Reproductive System: • The ovarian cycle: on the 14th day into the cycle ovulation happens. • When fertilization is unlikely (before ovulation), the mucus in the cervix is going to be very thick to form like a plug. When ovulation happens, the mucus becomes watery so it allows sperm to go through easier. • Sexual Female Response: • Labia minora, vaginal wall and clitoris become engorged with blood (grow 2-3 times) • Breasts swell and nipples become erect • Labia majora enlarge, redden, spread away from the vaginal opening • Vaginal wall releases lubricating fluid • Mucus-secreting glands beneath the labia minora also provide lubrication. • During orgasm: blood pressure and pulse rate rises, breathing quickens, and the walls of the uterus and oviducts contract rhythmically without a refractory period (this means that women can have multiple orgasms, something males cannot have because they do have a refractory period) • Ovarian cycle: monthly follicle changes occurring in the ovary that control the level of sex hormones in the blood and the uterine cycle, repeats every 28 days • Uterine cycle: monthly occurring changes in the characteristics of the endometrium, produced by the hormones that the ovaries produce (progesterone) • Primary oocyte: at birth a female has a lifetime supply of 700,000. They are stuck in late prophase 1 of meiosis until selected and activated after puberty • Follicles: structure in the ovary that produces a secondary oocyte and the hormones estrogen and progesterone. This secondary oocyte is stuck in metaphase 2 of meiosis until it's fertilized. • • Estrogen: female sex hormone that helps maintain sex organs and secondary sex characteristics (breast growth, hair under arms) • Progesterone: hormone partly responsible for preparing uterus for the fertilized ovum • Secondary oocyte: product of meiosis 1, stuck in metaphase 2, is ovulated. • Oogenesis: production of an egg in females via meiosis • Polar body: in oogenesis a non-functional product. 2 or 3 occur in meiosis. The secondary oocyte becomes an egg • • Only one usable gamete is produced by the female reproductive system • Ovulation: release of a secondary oocyte from the ovary • If fertilization occurs, the secondary oocyte becomes an egg (ovum) • Occurs in the middle of the ovarian cycle • Usually 1 per month • Stimulated by LH • Corpus luteum: yellow body that forms in the ovary from a follicle that has discharged its secondary oocyte, it secretes progesterone and some estrogen, if the egg is fertilized it remains for 3 months until placenta takes over. This is necessary during the beginning of pregnancy because the progesterone keeps the endometrium strong and thick and stops it from coming down. • Menstruation: loss of blood and tissue from the uterus at the end of the uterine cycle. Women lose from 10-85 ml of blood. (35ml is the average) • If two eggs were fertilized, the woman will have twins that aren't identical, for the twins to be identical there has to be only one fertilized egg that splits into two fertilized eggs. • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hGC): hormone through which the embryo lets the woman's body know that it was fertilized and that it has to nurture it now. Pregnancy tests look for this hormone using an antibody that is directed against hGC in blood or urine, because hGC in the woman's blood 1 week after fertilization. Secreted by blastocyst, tells the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen. • Implantation: begins 6 days after ovulation, takes 1 week to complete. 50% chance of success. • Placenta: temporary organ formed from both fetal and maternal issues • Provides nutrients and oxygen to developing fetus • Carries away fetal metabolic waste • Produces the hormones of pregnancy • Weighs 1-2 pounds. • Umbilical cord: structure bearing arteries and veins that connect the placenta to the fetus (where the belly button is after birth) • Gestation: period of pregnancy. About 280 days • Menopause: ovulation and menstruation cease. Prompted by hormonal changes, usually occurs between 45-55 years old. A whole year without menstruation. 4/23/16 1:35 PM Cont. Reproductive System: • Contraceptives: medication or device used to reduce the chance of pregnancy • Birth control pills: oral contraceptive containing estrogen and progesterone, shuts down the pituitary production of LH (the one that produces ovulation) and FSH, follicle development is prevented (no ovulation). Tricks the body into thinking it's already pregnant so it does not ovulate. • Intrauterine device: small piece of plastic or copper inserted into the uterus, alters uterine environment so fertilization does not occur. • Diaphragm: soft rubber or latex cup that fits over cervix used with spermicidal jelly. This blocks the entrance to the vagina so that the sperm do not get in, especially when they are killed with spermicidal jelly. • Female condom: large polyurethane tube that with a flexible ring fits onto cervix • Male condom: latex sheath that fits over erect penis • Contraceptive implants: uses synthetic progesterone to prevent ovulation, can remain effective for about 3 years. • Contraceptive injection: uses progesterone and/or estrogen to disrupt the ovarian cycle. Not long term, effective for several months. • Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs): known as the morning after pill o Plan B (Levonorgestrel) is a way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex o Prevents ovulation, may prevent a fertilized egg from implanting o No prescription needed if older than 16, works up to 72 hours after intercourse o Not to be confused with mifepristone (RU486, Mideprex): "abortion pill" • Sterility: inability to reproduce (permanently) • Vasectomy: both vas deferens are cut and sealed • Tubal ligation: uterine tubes are cut and sealed. • Sexually transmitted disease (STD): an illness that has a significant probability of transmission by means of human behavior including but not limited to: vaginal intercourse, oral sex and anal sex. They can be viral, bacterial, fungal, protist and animal origin. • Most effective way to prevent them: abstinence from sexual relations. Techniques to help reduce the risk of STDs include: o Having sex only with people who have testes negative for STDs o Remaining in a mutually monogamous relationship that started free of STDs o Using barrier techniques, primarily condoms that reduce risk of STD transmission o For sexually active people with multiple partners, getting vaccinated (although vaccines are not available for all STDs). • Viral STDs: sexually transmitted diseases caused by virus o Hepatitis: § A: usually acquired by contaminated drinking water, but also sexually by anal-oral contact. Symptoms appear 2-7 weeks after exposure, they include fatigue, fever, sore muscles, headache, nausea, weight loss, jaundice, liver pain. Does not result in chronic infection. Antibodies confer protection against reinfection. There is a vaccine for it
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