Communications Ch 33-35
Communications Ch 33-35 COMM 1001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by AmberNicole on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 1001 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Richards in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communications in Communication at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
Chapter 33-35: Speech Code Theory, Genderelect Styles, and Standpoint Theory Speech Codes Theory Ethnography: Work of a naturalist who watches, listens, and records communicative conduct in its natural setting in order to understand a culture Speech Code: Historically enacted, socially constructed system of terms, meanings, and rules, pertaining to communicative conduct Philipsen studied speech codes in a community outside of Chicago, IL (He called it Teamsterville) and Santa Barbara, CA Teamsterville and the Nacirema o People of Teamsterville spoke English, but Philipsen noted their pattern of speaking was radically different from speech codes he knew and heard in other places The Distinctiveness of Speech Codes Proposition 1: Wherever there is a distinctive culture, there is to be found a distinctive speech code o Most Teamsterville conversations: “Where are you from and what’s your nationality?” Related to whether a person is from “the neighborhood” Proposition 2: In any given speech community, multiple speech codes are deployed o Observe when people are affected by other codes or employ dual codes Teamsterville men gauge relative worth by comparing their talk with residents in other neighborhoods, stress unified nature of their neighborhood speech patterns The Multiplicity of Speech Codes Any attempt made to “improve” speech is regarded as an act of disloyalty o Men define their way of speaking by contrasting it with other codes o “Ya’ll”, “Might could” others? Proposition 3: A speech code involves a culturally distinctive psychology, sociology, and rhetoric Speech code reveals structures of self, society, and strategic action Critique: Different Speech Codes in Communication Theory Most ethnographers applaud Philipsen’s commitment to long- term participant observation and his perceptive interpretations o Critical of efforts to generalize across cultures Chapter 34: Genderelect Syles Male-female conversation is cross-cultural communication – Tannen o Genderlect: Tem suggesting that masculine and feminine styles of discourse are best viewed as two distinct cultural dialects Tannen’s theory of genderlect suggests that Harry’s and Sally’s words, and the way they are said, reflect separate worlds of men and women o Each person obviously finds the other’s view alien and threatening o Sally, as a woman, wants intimacy; Harry, as a man, wants independence Women’s Desire for Connection Versus Men’s Desire for Status Women seek human connection Men are concerned mainly with status o Girls and women feel it is crucial that they be liked by their peers. Boys and men feel it is crucial that they be respected by their peers. (Tannen) Rapport Talk Versus Report Talk Tannen scrutinizes conversation of speakers from feminine culture and masculine culture to determine their core values Private speaking versus public speaking o Men use talk as a weapon o Women talk more than men in private Rapport talk: typical conversational style of women, which seeks to establish connection with others Report talk: typical monologic style of men, which seeks to command attention, convey information, and win arguments Listening o A woman listening to a story or explanation tends to hold eye contact, offer head nods, and react with response to indicate she is listening Cooperative overlap: supportive interruption often meant to show agreement and solidarity with speaker Asking Questions o Women ask questions to establish a connection with others Tag question: Short question at end of a declarative statement, often used by women to soften the sting of potential disagreement or invite open, friendly dialogue Is is kind of cold in here, isn’t it? Conflict o Men are more comfortable with conflict and less likely to hold themselves in check o Men have early warning system that is geared to detect signs that they are being told what to do Tannen shows that sensitivity training is an effort to teach men how to speak in feminine voice; assertiveness training effort to teach women to speak in masculine voice o Understanding each other’s styles, and the motives behind them, is a first move in overcoming destructive responses Critique: Is Tannen Soft on Research and Men? Tannen’s analysis of common misunderstandings between men and women has struck a chord in a million other readers o Perhaps using selective data is the only way to support a claim that women are one way and men are another Kunkel and Burleson directly challenge the different cultures perspective o Empirical research does not support Tannen’s two-culture worldview Chapter 35: Standpoint Theory Standpoint Theory Standpoint: Place from which to critically view the world around us Harding and Wood claim “the social groups within which we are located powerfully shape what we experience and know as well as how we understand and communicate Women as a marginalized group Standpoint theorists see important differences between men and women o Wood claims any gender difference between women and men is the result of cultural expectations and treatment each group receives from the other Besides gender, Harding stresses economic condition, race, and sexual orientation o Cultural identities can either draw people to the center of society or push them to fringes Social location is important because people at the top of societal hierarchy are the ones privileged to define what it means to be female, male, or anything else in a given culture Knowledge from Nowhere Versus Local Knowledge Local Knowledge: Knowledge situated in time, place, experience, and relative power o There is no possibility of unbiased perspective that is disinterested, impartial, value-free, or detached from a particular historical situation Strong Objectivity: Less Partial Views From the Standpoint of Women “People with subordinate status have greater motivation to understand the perspective of more powerful groups than vice versa (Wood) They also have little reason to defend the status quo Theory to Practice: Communication Research Based on Women’s Lives Wood discovered that gendered communication practices reflect and reinforce our societal expectation that care giving is women’s work Critique: Are Standpoints on the Edge Less False? Feminist scholars are concerned that Harding’s version of standpoint theory underestimates the role language plays in expressing one’s sense of self and view of the world
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