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Complete notes on Cells

by: Megan Foy

Complete notes on Cells BIO 102

Marketplace > Washington State University > BIO 102 > Complete notes on Cells
Megan Foy
GPA 3.57
General Biology
Dr. Storfer

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General Biology
Dr. Storfer
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Foy on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 102 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Storfer in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.


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Date Created: 02/27/15
Cells Friday February 13 2015 1024 AM February 13 2015 0 HIV 0 How does it get into a cell 39 Enters through cell membrane 39 quotselectively permeablequot III Permeability depends on proteins embedded in phospholipid bHayer 39 Viruses and other diseases have to 39trick39 it to get in I Diffusion III No energypassive III Osmosis Diffusion of water specifically III Particles move from area of high concentration to area of low concentration I Facilitated diffusion transport III Passive transport high concentration to low concentration III Active transport low concentration to high concentration 0 How does it 39infect39 cells 0 How does it work 0 Cell membrane 0 Structure 0 Phospholipidbilayer 39 Hydrophilic water loving head 39 Hydrophobictail February 18 2015 OOTD Aye Aye Demon Primate Madagascar RACELLULAR SPACE Carbohydrate group Phospholipids 7435quot1 quotJ 11 Proteins Cholesterol DE THE CELL Cells Part Structure and Function 0 Once in the cell HIV proteins and RNA release Cytoplasm o Cytoplasm 39 Mostly water 39 Contains proteins and other chemicals 39 Provides medium for network of highways for cell 39 Cell organelles 39floating39 in it 0 Once in cytoplasm HIV uses enzyme reverse transcriptase to change from RNA to DNA 0 Animal cells controlled by DNA 0 Once in cytoplasm HIV moves into the Nucleus 0 Control center of the cell 0 Contains chromosomes 39 Hereditary material 0 Surrounded by nuclear envelope 0 Has nuclear pores 39 Allows communication with cell protein synthesis 39 Take message from DNA compress to most important and sends out in RNA 0 Once in nucleus 0 HIV uses enzyme integrase to insert itself into cells DNA 0 Start making proteins to make copies of itself 39 Proteins made in ribosomes some ribosomes in cytoplasm others in rough endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic reticulum 0 Complex network of tubes and sacs 0 Two types 39 Smooth III Small percentage III Lipids fatty acids and carbs made 39 Rough III Ribosomes make it bumpy Site of protein synthesis 0 So HIV makes necessary proteins ex RT enzyme in rough ER 0 Then has to transport these proteins into cytoplasm 0 Proteins enter transport vesicles that 39bud39 from rough ER to gogi apparatus Golgi Apparatus 0 Sort and receive and send proteins and lipids to for new virions 0 Th rough licis Mitochondria 0 From mom 0 The quotpower plantsquot ofthe cell 0 Animal vs Plant cells 0 Plant cells have cell wall with addition to plasma membrane February 20 2015 OOTD Peacock Spider ifts legs and colorful butt in order to attract mates 0 Cell Communication 0 Involuntary responses 0 Cells in multicellular organisms are specialized 0 Although specialized cannot operate in isolation o quotsignaling moleculesquot proteins and chemicals used for communication 39 Received by quottarget cellsquot 39 2 types of receptors III In membrane Hydrophilic molecules bind to receptors at cell surface III Inside cell Hydrophobic pass right through 39 2 types of signaling molecules III Short range affect only cells around them Short life span III Long range can travel through blood Longer life span Hormonestestosterone adrenaline February 23 2015 OOTD grumpyfrog African rain frog blobfish anglerfish Star nOSECl m0Ie Cell division and Cancer 0 Normal cell division and cycle 0 Most of the time cells in interphase 39 Steps of interphase III 61 phase growing ready to replicate DNA III S phase makes copy ofself DNA replicated III 62 phase checks made to ensure conditions are suitable for division 0 Prophase 39 First stage is mitosis 39 Chromosomes condenses amp becomes visible 39 Centrosomes move to opposite poles of cell 39 Microtubules begin to grow out from centrosomes o Metaphase 39 Chromosomes lining up in middle 0 Anaphase I Being pulled apart to opposite poles 39 Daughter chromosomes separate 0 Telophase 39 Spindle fibers dissolve 39 New nuclei form end of mitosis 39 Cytokinesis breaks 2 daughtercells apart III Technically not a part of mitosis Plant mitosis is a little different cell wall 0 Anaphase o Telophase I Vesicles filled with cell wall components 39 Vesicles fuseforming new cell wall 0 Cytokinesis Electrostatic attraction keeps DNA 2 meters stretched coiled up Chromosomes 0 Each species has a different numbers and shapes of ch romosomesgtquotKaryotypequot 0 Most animals are diploid 2 copies of chromosomes 0 Pair of chromosomes 1 from mom 1 from dad called homologous 0 Cells in human body contain 46 chromosomes except eggs if female and I BIAan I sperm ll male 0 Cancer 0 Uncontrolled cell division 0 How does it actually occur 39 Single cell loses control of mitosis 39 Daughter cells divide uncontrollable if containedbenign 39 Cancerous cells spread to other areas metastasis now considered malignant 0 Why don t we see cells dividing out of control I Cell division is heavily regulated 39 Genes that produce proteins involves in cell division proto oncogenes 39 Tumor suppressorgenes prevent cells from dividing 39 For a cell to divide protooncogenes need to be on and tumor suppressoroff 0 ways to get cancer 39 damage to protooncogenes always sends signal to produce I Damage to tumor suppressorgenes III Both copies have to be damaged


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