Nervous system Biol 204
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Benthem on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 204 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Marcy Litvak, Dr. Tom Kennedy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Plant and Animal Form and Function in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
The Nervous System I. Nerves – bundle of axons from multiple nerve cells A. Nerve net – cnidarian, series of interconnected nerve cells, responds to light B. Echinoderms – nerve ring with radial nerves C. Bilateral animals – cephalization with sensory organs D. Annelids and arthropods – segmented ganglia II. CNS – vertebrates, rain and spinal chord A. Notochord – stiff rod down length, muscles attach to allow movement without compression B. Anatomy 1. Ventricles – fluid filled spaces near spinal column, protects from impact 2. Grey matter – neuron cell bodies, unmyelinated axons. Cognition and sensory perception, muscle control, emotions 3. White matter – myelinated axons. Tissue messages between grey matter 4. Glia – regulate neurons C. Brain structures 1. Cerebrum – bulk of brain, hemisphere, memory and cognition a. Frontal b. Parietal c. Occipital d. Temporal e. Corpus callosum – connects hemispheres 2. Cerebellum – complex motor patterns 3. Diencephalon – conveys sensory info to the cerebellum, maintains homeostasis 4. Brain stem – connects brain to spinal chord. Regulate heart, lungs, digestive III. Peripheral nervous system – everything else. Connects to spinal cord and sends info to brain. Chart of divisions on slide A. Afferent system – transmit sensory information to CNS B. Efferent System – transmit information (motor) away from CNS 1. Somatic (motor) system – controls skeletal muscles, allows voluntary motion and control 2. Autonomic system – controls smooth and cardio muscles. Generally involuntary a. Parasympathetic division – rest and digest. Promotes calming and return to normal functions b. Sympathetic division – fight or flight. Arousal and energy regulation IV. Emotions – the limbic system A. Amygdala – emotional experience, very close to olfactory. Mass of nuclei near base of cerebrum. B. Hippocampus – memory C. Hypothalamus – information V. Memory and learning A. Short term memory is in the hippocampus B. Long term is transferred from the hippocampus to the cerebral cortex VI. Neurons A. Action potential – rapid, temporary change in membrane potential 1. Active transport of K and Na creates an electrochemical gradient with more positive charges (Na ) outside. 2. Depolarization – membrane channels open, Na floods in, raising the charge 3. Repolarization – channels close, membrane potential returns 4. Hyperpolarization – brief time after action potential where the membrane potential is more negative than at resting. Prevents constant firing 5. AP causes release of neurotransmitters into synaptic gap, transmitting information to the dendrites of the next neuron. Tetanus causes constant firing in muscles, causing them to clench
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