psyc 3120 chapter 18 lecture notes
psyc 3120 chapter 18 lecture notes PSYC 3120
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
Lecture 18 notes April 19, 2016 Chapter 18: Late Adulthood Social & Personality Development Gerontology • Study of old age • Basic personality traits remain stable o Agreeableness o Satisfaction o Intellect o Extroversion o Energy o Acceptance of change Grandparents • Adults send as much as 1/3 of their lifespan as grandparents • Beliefs, value, and standards Grandchildren • Grandmothers vs Grandfathers o Grandmothers tend to be more involved with their grandchildren o Most young grandchildren feel closer to their grandmothers • Maternal grandparents o Children show preference for maternal grandparents over paternal • Typically bond closer between same sex Social Class/ethnic factors • Low income families • Children in single parent families • African American grandparents o Black grandparents are more involved with grandchildren than white o Black grandchildren feel closer to their grandparents o Higher proportion of multigenerational families § Grandparents play a central role in childrearing Lecture 18 notes April 19, 2016 Great Grandchildren • Most grandchildren do not have a close relationship with their great grandchildren o Older adults are so old they don’t have energy to expend on forming new relationships o There may be so many great-grandchildren that great grandparents do not feel a strong emotional tie Positivity of being a grandparent • Valued elder • Immortality through descendants • Re-involvement with personal past • Indulgence Grandparenting styles • Involved o Actively engaged in grandparenting & have influence over grandchildren’s lives o Take care of kids multiple times a week • Companionate o Relaxed o More of a supporter or buddy o Visit and call often • Remote o Detached and distant o Show little interest in children’s lives Adult Grandchildren • Provide a wider network of support • Someone to visit you in your advanced age Normative Crisis Models • Robert peck • Erik Erikson Lecture 18 notes April 19, 2016 Robert Peck • Ego differentiation vs Work – Role preoccupation o Changes that occur when people stop working can trigger a difficult adjustment that has major impact on the way people see themselves • Body transcendence vs Body preoccupation o Period in which people must learn to cope with and move beyond changes in physical capabilities as a result of aging • Ego transcendence vs Ego preoccupations o Period in which elderly people must come to grips with their coming death Erikson • Theory of psychosocial development • Ego integrity vs Despair o A process of looking back over one’s life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it o Some People experience a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment in which erikson terms “integrity” § Feel they have realized and fulfilled the possibilities that have come their way in life and have few regrets o Some see dissatisfaction § Feel they missed important opportunities and have not accomplished what they have wished • Overall feeling of despair Selectivity Theory • Social networks become more selective as we age • Don’t need social interaction in the same way the young people do • Still need contacts for emotional regulation • Days are numbered • Prefer pleasurable rewarding relationships Good News & Bad News • Good o Can serve as resources for younger people o Advice o Freedom for fun Lecture 18 notes April 19, 2016 • Bad o Transition (60-65 yrs) o Struggle with self definition o Loss of power, respect, and authority Personality factors • Disengagement theory • Activity theory • Continuity theory Disengagement Theory • Theory suggesting that late adulthood is marked by a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical psychological and social levels • Weed out relationships • Life reflection • Retirement • NOT UNIVERSAL • Criticized because it takes the failure of society to provide sufficient opportunities for meaningful engagement during late adulthood and then blames people in this age group not being engaged • Gerontologists reject this Activity Theory • Suggests that successful aging occurs when people maintain the interests and activities they pursued during middle age and resist any decrease in the amount and time of social interaction they have with others • Replacement activities • Some prefer to slow down o “Less is more” o do only the things that bring them the greatest satisfaction Continuity Theory • People simple need to maintain desired level of involvement in society in order to maximize their sense of well-being and self esteem • those who were highly active and social will be happiest if they remain to do so Lecture 18 notes April 19, 2016 Economics Of Late Adulthood • 11% live below the poverty line o 7% white live below the poverty line o 18% Hispanic men o 25% African American men • women twice as likely to live in poverty o divorced women are worse off • 3/5 of Americans between the ages of 21 and 64 do not have an IRA or a 401k • elderly must often live on a fixed income that rarely keeps up with inflation o social security o pensions o savings • elderly face rising health costs o the average older person spends 20 percent of his or her income on health care costs o nursing homes can cost an average of more than 60,000 a year Retirement • mandatory retirement is illegal • stages o honeymoon § when former workers engage in a variety of activities such as traveling that were previously hindered by full time work o disenchantment § when retirees conclude that retirement isn’t what they thought o reorientation § retirees reconsider their options and become engaged in now more fulfilling activities o Retirement Routine § They come to grips with realities with retirement and feel fulfilled in this new phase o Termination § Terminate retirement and go back to work or Health becomes so bad they cant live independently Lecture 18 notes April 19, 2016 Marriage in the Later Years • Over 65 more men are married than women o Life expectancy § 70% of women outlive their husbands o marriage gradient § women are unlikely to remarry because women marry older and that’s a small selection at this age § works in men’s favor because they marry younger and there is a huge selection of women for them to choose from • Majority Satisfied o Provide substantial companionship and support emotionally • Changes o Time o Chores o Gender roles § Men become less competitive § Women become more assertive and autonomous o Health § Some view taking care of their dying spouse as a last chance to demonstrate their love and devotion Siblings • 80% of Americans over he age of 60 have at least one living sibling • siblings = insurance policy o unusually strong emotional support because they share old pleasant memories and the usually present oldest existing relationship Friendship • more flexible than family o we choose friends o were in control • companionship • social support o assistance and comfort supplied by another person or network • reciprocity Lecture 18 notes April 19, 2016 o expectation that if someone provides something positive to another person eventually the favor will be returned Adult Children • close proximity • daughters vs son o daughters communicate more • mothers vs fathers o moms receive more communication • parents offer advice, information and monetary help • children offer support
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