Black Holes Astr 1010-100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Karounos on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Astr 1010-100 at University of Washington taught by Dr. Oliver Fraser in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Introductory Astronomy 1 in Astronomy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 02/27/15
225 1 5 1 Goals A Interpret Schwarzschild radii and event horizons for black holes of different masses B Explain how black holes are observed 11 During the eclipse the stars appear to move away from the sun due to relativity A SpaceTlme masses are spacetime light gets affected by mass as gravity B The mass of the sun ends the night to come in a different angle C we only see that the light shows us D the light was changed so we see its apparent position E true path of the light 111 Rubber Sheet analogy A space is 2D a normal piece of paper and when you put mass on it it bends the space B our space is not geometrically perfect however IV Geodesics A when they encounter spacetime they follow straight path through spacetime that doesn39t happen to be straight B not moving quick enough to escape gravity C Einstein said this is the same thing as gravity D just us moving on our geodesic on a path in spacetime V Other analogy A we re all fish we have some control as to where we go in a powerful river spacetime but with no freedom to change or move through time We can t swim as fast as the current but we go around the bend with the river V1 Black Holes A Most projectiles return to Earth but they don t have to if they go faster than about 25000 mph 1 This is Earth s escape velocity B scientists after Newton but before the wave theory of light suppose that light was affected by grant in the same manner as projectiles C Projectiles lose speed due to gravity but what if you got going fast enough to go high enough to where gravity got much weaker l escape velocity v D what if there was a star with so much gravity that light could not escape 1 called a Dark Star E But the wave theory of light means light didn t feel gravity VII What would it take to stop light Enter Relativity A B C VIII WUOW F IX A B C X A WWW H353 ZVWH 02 General relativity light does feel gravity ZGM Schwarzschild Radius r CZ if you get close to this radius your radius can be equal to the speed of light The Schwarzschild Radius light can only travel through this imaginary surface in our direction Any signal travels at v S c so information can only ow in one direction in This radius is after called the event horizon Outside the event horizon it s business as usual potentially in a gravitational eld that changes quickly the real issue is that the gravity at your feet will be different than your head Actually hard to fall into a black hole from outside the event horizon it s just another massive object gravity works the same as always without friction unlikely you ll even fall in also Small If the sun collapses into a black hole it would be just 4 miles wide How to make a black hole Super Nova is helpful the iron core collapses to become a neutron star what if the neutron star has enough pressure to crush neutrons Keeps crushing and turns neutron into something we don39t know the sun emits a good amount of Xrays but what else does the second strongest Xray emitter is the constellation cygnus 1 found from observing a star being jerked around and orbiting something every 56 days 2 stream of fast owing out to an accretion disk emitting Xrays 3 first detected black hole because it s too massive to be a neutron 4 it has to be in a binary system because it s easy to detect black hole spin is very important because a black hole has too much mass we see the back of it as the light is bent light losses energy as it claims out of a gravitational well 1 it gets redshifted intensity and wavelength changes across the accretion disk the issue isn t the gravity because if you have enough spee you re good the issue is how much is gravity changing as you go in analogy of spacetime 1 black hole is a waterfall no going back denser than the densest thing we don t know what s inside besides space where spacetime bends so much you can t do math with it anymore is called a singularity we don t know what there is even as a normal state of matter because everything goes to an in nite density what if energy going into a black hole came out as a quasar l a worrnhole theory but no proof of existence
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