History 112 History 112
Popular in American History Since 1865
Popular in History
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sequoia Brown on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 112 at University of South Carolina taught by Foxworth in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
History 112 April 19, 2016 Final Exam Same as other exams (not cumulative) Just test 3 Chapter 27-31 Reagan Doctrine - Supported large-scale military buildup: “Peace through Strength” - Force the Soviet Union to cripple their economy through outlandish military expenditures to prop up proxies in third-world countries ( US aids local “freedom fighters” in these areas) - 1983: Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as new nuclear buildup - National Debt grows from $994 billion in 1980 to $2.8 trillion in 1989 Iran Contra Affair - Conspiracy to sell weapons to Iran as part of a scheme for the release of US hostages - Funding anti-communist fighter in Nicaragua o Why does US care about Nicaragua in the first place? Dictator- Somoza Son takes over in the 1960s and is really popular Group of socialist rise up against his son Sandinistassocialist, Soviet Union group of people o Are encouraging other governments to overthrow government and want to spread socialists movement and sends weapons to other countries to do so The US oppose the Sandinistas because they are Soviet friendly Contras- counter revolutionaries – 1981-82 o Wants to put down the Sandinistas o Supporters of the original Somoza’s Really gain the sympathy of the US bc the US wants the Sandinistas out US supplies weapons for the Contras to overthrows the Sandinistas o 1982 media links Contras to drug trafficking, etc So Congress Passes Boland Amendment 1982 Prohibits the use of US funds for the purpose of overthrowing the government of Nicaragua Then passed Boland II 1984 Forbids any government what so ever to aid the Contras **Iran Hostage Crisis is different from Iran Contra Affair American Hostage in Beirut - US stopped supporting military buildup in Iran after Iranian Revolution - 7 Americans taken hostage by pro- Iranian forces (Hezbollah) in Lebanon by 1984 o Taken one by one from 1984-1985 - Captors wanted anti-tank missiles; exchange would encourage hostage release - August 1985: shipments of missiles sold; only one hostage released; shipments continued under leadership of Gen. Oliver North o Wants to charge a little more and want to put the money in a Swiss bank account so that it can be transferred to the Contras to overthrow the government Iran Contra Scandal Conspiracy to sell weapons to… - Nov 1985: Proceeds of arms sales to Iran (85%) diverted by North to fund the Contras in Nicaragua and circumvent Boland Amendment restrictions, regardless of Congressional allowing more direct aid - Reagan authorizes more weapons transactions in 1986 to release more hostages and increase funds - Lebanese newspaper breaks story about the diversion of weapons profits in exchange for hostages in November 1986: sales end o American media finds links to Oliver North and the Contras Aftermath - November 25, 1986: Reagan admits profits from arms trades were sent to Contras o Reagan fires people dealing with scandal - Contras and Sandinistas reached peace agreement in 1987, resulting in democratic elections in Nicaragua - Iran- Contra Congressional Hearings begin in 1987 - Government officials plead guilty to conspiracy to defraud the US, withholding information from Congress, perjury, obstruction - President George H.W. Bush pardons six key players in 1992 Soviet Union in the 1980s - Michael Gorbachev assumed Soviet leadership March 1985 - Wanted to end the Cold War, reduce defense spending to allocate funds to domestic expenses - Proposes missile cuts to Reagan; removes troops from Afghanistan - December 1987: Missile reduction treaty signed with Reagan - Indicates that he will not utilize force to enforce division in Berlin after wall gates opened End of the Cold War - 1989: Soviet Union holds elections to Parliament; will not use force to back pro-Soviet satellites - Gorbachev visited US in 1990 to negotiate end of Cold War with Pres. Bush; issued a joint statement that it was officially over - June 1991: Boris Yeltsin wins democratic election; becomes 1 popularly elected president - Gorbachev disbands Communist Party, December 1991; activities suspended - United States continues to face unrest I Middle East after conflict ends with former USSR
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