Einstein's Relativity Astr 1010-100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Karounos on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Astr 1010-100 at University of Washington taught by Dr. Oliver Fraser in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Introductory Astronomy 1 in Astronomy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 02/27/15
22315 1 Goal A B List the effects of special relativity Predict how light moves near massive objects 11 Newtonian Mystery 1 Light is a wave waving through A Theory The Luminous Aether A III P150 IV C D we can compare light to sound detect a ow of ether measure in cross hatching directions and nd the difference the MichelonMarsley Experiment Lights combined after separation could barely detect speed of light because it s always seemed to be the same speed Einstein39s Solution A B assumes that the speed of light is a very special value measurements of the speed of light will always give the same value even if you or the source are moving different than Newton in Newtonian physics speeds are relative Consider a timer composed of 1 a light that ashes once 2 a mirror placed length L away 3 a detector 4 the time between the ash and detection is a T zc L 5 In a train the distance of L changes so you must get 2Lsm6 a T T 6 But the speed of light doesn t change The person on the train s time is moving slower V Special Relativity in the case of constant motion A mmwwwm instead of measuring speeds relative to motion relativity predicts that time is relative to motion Emc2 nothing can move faster than c moving clocks are slower lengths contract in the direction of movement mas increases as you go faster light can never move slower Consider the Muon 1 measure how long a muon lasts 22 seconds VI P150 7 VII B C Einstein39s Equivalence Principle A B C VIII 7 2 Cosmic rays hit the atmosphere and create muons 3 because of how fast they are going they hit the ground The cosmic speed limit lets us limit sizes A Pulsars pulse very regularly 1 we determined that they are spinning neutron stars the pulsing art must all be in sync with itself it must be small enough that a signal can grace the surface as one pulse the quichet signal travels at light speed if they pulse every 13 second then they can39t be bigger than 1 cl rt c X 033 seconds you can t assumt that two things are simultaneous because that is relative to how we eXperience them Newtonian Myster 2 Mass is heavy other times it s heavy too A Gravitational Mass 1 Fma 2 GravityGravity a Inertia Mass 1 Fma 2 Inertial Fa No connection between the two but we always get the same number gravitational mass and inertia mass are the same we are acceleration upward light will keep moving in a straight line but because we are sitting in a gravitational field and accelerating the beam drops Einstein predicts that the light from stars should bend as it grazes sun s surface moves away from us and they do The sun appears to have moved the stars away from the sun