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BIO 240 Week 5 Notes

by: Miriam Valenzuela

BIO 240 Week 5 Notes BIO 240

Miriam Valenzuela
GPA 3.81
Second Semester Biology
Dr. Andrew Swei and Dr. Dennis Desjardin

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About this Document

Week 5 of Notes. We couldn't go over the Protist section but there are still notes on that section for your referral. These notes cover everything from Kingdom systems- focusing on Protists, Fungi ...
Second Semester Biology
Dr. Andrew Swei and Dr. Dennis Desjardin
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miriam Valenzuela on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 240 at San Francisco State University taught by Dr. Andrew Swei and Dr. Dennis Desjardin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Second Semester Biology in Biology at San Francisco State University.

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Date Created: 02/27/15
Biology 240 Week 5 Notes 022315 Professor Dejardin wasn t able to be in class so these are notes from the slides we should have covered Two Kingdom System Linnaeus organisms are categorized as either animals or plants Five Kingdom System RH Whittaker said there were 5 kingdoms Monera Prokaryotes Protista Plantae Fungi and Animalia Prokaryotic Monera and Eukaryotic all the other kingdoms Protista a group which consists of all the organisms that didn t fit anywhere else unicellular mostly Three Domain System Bacteria Archaea and Eukarya superkingdoms Systematics are a work in progress They fluctuate depending on new information discovered Protist Diversity Excavata 1 Diplomonads and Parabasalids a lack mitochondria lost mitochondria during evolution they diverged very early in history They were once called Archaezoa Diplomonads have flagella two nuclei and a cytoskeleton i Ex Giardia found in water source contaminated by feces f Parabasalidstrichomonads i found in vagina of human females 2 Euglenozoans Euglenoids and Kinetopastids a Photoautotrophic and heterotrophic species b Contain flagella c Euglenoids have anterior packet which contains one or two flagella 995 i lack cell wall ii three membrane bound chloroplast iii Euglena autotrophic while other euglenoids are heterotrophic d Kinetoplastids have large mitochondrion i Kinetoplasts contain extracellular DNA 3 Alveolates Apicomplexans Ciliates and Dinoflagellates a Alveolates contain characteristics of protists parasites and ciliated protists b Alveoli small membrane bound cavities found under cell surface i considered a synapomorphy Apicomplexans are parasites of animals Sporozoites infectious cells with complex organelles sexual and asexual reproduction Ciliates are diverse protists contain cilia which allow them to move and feed i Live in freshwater ii Flagella cilia stem from a submembrane system of microtubules iii Two nuclei Large macronucleus and tiny micronuclei 1 Macronucleus 50 copies of genome 2 Micronuclei are involved in sexual reproduction g Dinoflagellates are components of phytoplankton suspended in waters surface i foundation of marine and freshwater food ii contain one chloroplast others are heterotrophic iii can be unicellular or colonial cameo Chromalveolata 1 Stramenopiles a fungus molds and heterokont algae b heterotrophic and photosynthetic protists c Oomycetes large egg fertilized by smaller egg nucleus producing zygote d Stramenopiles are important decomposers Rhizaria 1 Radiolarians a Ray Foot silica in cell wall b Planktonicheterotrophic 2 Forams a all marine b Heterotrophic c multi chambered porous shells made from calcium carbonate d Pseudopodiaused for mobility Unikonta 1 Amoebozoans a Entamoebas i unicellular ii lack cell wall iii pseudopodia to move and feed b Amoebas freshwater and marine i heterotrophs Slime Molds 1 Mycetozoa a analogous to fungi b pseudopodia to move and eat 2 Plasmodial Slime Mold a heterotrophic 3 Cellular Slime Mold a aggregation if food is scarce b Asexual Reproduction spores 022515 Kingdom Fungi a c6099 Eukaryotic Heterotrophic Nutrient uptake through absorption extracellular digestion Exoenzymes secreted into environment Endoenzymes enzymes in fungus used to break down compounds Multicellular filamentous i unicellular yeast and chytrids ii Body Hyphae filaments iii intenNoven hyphae mycelium immortal with proper environment and nutrition iv septa chains of cells separated by cross walls 1 coenocytic fungi fungi that lack septa lntranuclear Mitosis and Meiosis i Prophase nuclear envelope disappears ii Telophase new membrane appears 1 NOT WITH FUNGl they never get rid of their membrane Fungal hyphae have walls with chitin NOT CELLULOSE Fungi store lipids and carbohydrates Fungi produce spores i spores can be produced sexually or asexually ii spores are dispersed by natural causes such as wind water and animals iii Asexual spores are clonar they re the result of mitotic divisions identical iv Sexual spores are a result of meiosis so they re not identical k Sexual Life cycles i Plasmogamy cytoplasmic fusion ii Karyogamy fusion of their haploid nuclei Fungal Diversity 1 About 100000 species known 2 5 Lineages of Fungi zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Chytridiomycota Glomeromycota Chytrids Chytridiomycota 1 unicellular 2 only group with flagella 3 feed on pollen or other parts of plants 4 parasitize protists plants and animals Zygote Fungi Zygomycota 1 Zygosporangia contain zygote 2 Bread Molds 3 Asexual Phase haploid spores develop sporangia in the tip of the hyphae Glomeromycota Endomycorrhizae 1 Mutualistic symbiont with plants roots 2 Inside the roots fungi absorbs water and nutrient uptake for the plant and the plant releases carbohydrates for the fungi Ascomycota Ascomycetes 1 Asexual and Sexual cycle of reproduction a Asexual asexual spores called conidia b Mold is the stage of asexual reproduction 2 Prevalent in the air Basidiomycota Basidiomycetes 1 Basidia Basidiospores 2 Basidiocarps fruit bodies a decomposers break down cellulose b mutualistectomycorrhizae c sexual reproduction Fungal Ecology Saprotrophic nutrition from dead organic material Biotrophic obtain nutrition from living organisms Symbiotic relationship Pathogens parasites beneficial to the fungus while causing harm to the host Commensalism fungus benefits and doesn t harm nor benefit the host Mutualism both benefit 1 Saprotrophic fungi saprobes a break down carbohydrates b some eat plastic styrofoam jet fuel rubber c convert heavy metals and toxins into nonharmful products 2 Biotrophic fungi a attack plants and animals b economic loss c targets agricultural crops 3 Biotrophic Fungi a Commensalism i fungi live inside animals as endophytes b Mutualism i Lichens ii Mycorrhizae Benefit to Humans Decomposers recyclers Mycorrhizal symbionts for environment Food and drink Cheese bread yeast Medicines Vitamins riboflavin B12 022715 Algae Kingdom Protista All photosynthetic All contain chlorophyll A Non vascular lack water and sugar simple reproduction mobile Classification of Algae Euglenophyta Dinoflagellata Phaeophyta Chrysophyta Bacillariophyta Rhodophyta Chlorophyta Charophyta 1 Chloroplast Type and Photosynthetic Pigments a Stramenopile Algae and Dinoflagellates i Chlorophyll a and C ii carotenoids xanthophylls fucoxanthin brown b Rhodophyta Red Algae i Chlorophyll a and d ii Carotenoids phycobilins phycoerythrin red iii single thylakoids not in stacks c Chlorophytes and Charophyceans i Chlorophyll a and B ii carotenoids yellow xanthophylls iii thylakoids forming grana d Euglenophytes i Chlorophyll a and b ii carotenoids yellow xanthophylls iii thylakoids forming grana 2 Carbohydrate reserve Compounds a 13 Glucose Polymers i LaminarinPhaeophyta ii ChrysolaminarinChrysophyta iii LeucosinBacillariophyta iv ParamylonEuglenophyta b 14 Glucose Polymer i Floridean Starch Rhodophyta c 1416 Glucose Polymer i Plant Starch Chlorophyta 3 Type Number and Position of Flagella a Whiplash or tinsel b 1 to many c apical or lateral position d asexual spores gametes or both 4 Cell Wall Compound a Cellulose algae except euglenoids and some diatoms b alginic acid brown algae c mucilaginous compounds agar and carrageenan d CaCO3 Red Algae e Silicon Diatoms f ProteinsAllAlgae Chrysophyta unicellular or colonial freshwater Bacillariophyta Diatoms contain silica Mitosis daughter cell receives half the info from parents and creates the other half unicellular or colonial Rhodophyta Red Algae multicellular lack flagella contain phycoerythrin red pigment Chlorophyta Green Algae most diverse group freshwater symbiotic to fungi Lichens Homothalic one body produces both types of gametes HeterothaIic two bodies produces gametes Gametophyte haploid Sporophyte diploid Gametangium produces gametes Sporangium produces spores Antheridium male gametangium with protective walls Archegonium female gametangium with protective walls Sexual Life Cycles Gametic Meiosis Zygotic Meiosis Sporic Meiosis Gametic Meiosis Gametes are only haploid phase due to meiosis Diploid phase most of the time Zygotic Meiosis Zygote is only in diploid phase haploid phase most of the time Sporic Meiosis Life cycle with both haploid and diploid components alternation of generations


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