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lecture 3

by: Jordyn

lecture 3 PSY 101

GPA 3.6
Introductory Psychology
Richard Lucas

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Introductory Psychology
Richard Lucas
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordyn on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Michigan State University taught by Richard Lucas in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.


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Date Created: 02/27/15
LECTURE 3 After watching their favorite team lose a game Emma and her friends commented to each other about how they also knew the loss was inevitable Scientists call this hindsight bias Using intuition and observation as the starting point 0 Theory An explanations using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observation 0 Hypothesis A testable prediction Often implied by a theory Not in a book agreed upon by almost all Conduction research 0 Operational de nition A statement of procedures operations used to de ne research variables Example Intelligence may be operationally de ned as what an intelligence test measures 0 Wrong operational de nition because just testing knowledge of psychology Con rmation bias again 0 Con rmation bias Focus on times when prediction is con rmed Ignore times when it is not Even explain away times that it is not 0 usory correlation The perception of relationship where none exists No Dowser Dowser No water Con rm Discon rm Water Discon rm Con rm Need to look for both con rming and discon rming evidence The research process 0 Research and observations generate or re ne theories which lead to hypotheses based on those theories which lead to more research and observation Observation gets us half way there 0 Two problems We can draw awed conclusions We are bad statisticians Understanding statistics think in pictures 0 Scatterplot A graphed cluster of dots each which represents the values of two variables The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation 0 Little scatter indicated high correlation o Interpreting correlations Correlation Coef cient Correlation Coef cient gt RO3 quot A Correlation Coef cient Perfect negative correlation 100 Perfect negative correlation 100 Zero correlation 000 o No pattern in data Which of the following correlation coef cients indicated the strongest relationship between variables 095 A signi cant disadvantage of the correlational approach is that does not provide evidence of cause and effect 0 could ange D EDLll SENSE uid gauge Correlation tells us if one variable changes does one variable also change CORRELATION DOES NOT CAUSE CAUSATION Solution experiments 0 The investigator manipulates one or more factors independent variables to observe their effect one some behavior or mental process the dependent variable o The experimenter controls for other relevant factors by using random assignment of participants to conditions Features of an experiment 0 0 Random assignment Independent variable The experimental factor that is manipulated The variable whose effect is being studied Dependent variable The experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable ln psychology it is usually a behavior or mental process How to remember dependent variable depends on independent The scores on exam depend on whether or not I do an outline Demonstration lets make a deal o Envelope 33 change rst guess then second guess 66 Was the envelope thing an experiment no because no random assignment Correlational studies and experimental studies both have strengths and weaknesses 0 Experimental studies weakness cant test certain things because cannot manipulate everything Arti cial settings can cause people to act differently o Correlational studies weakness cannot cause causation


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