PSY 250 EXAM#3 LECTURE NOTES
PSY 250 EXAM#3 LECTURE NOTES PSY250
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Date Created: 04/23/16
Chapter 7 Knowledge Knowledge: a familiarity, awareness or understanding, gained by experience Semantic memory –is tied to knowledge Episodic memory – is tied to experience • Types of knowledge - Factual knowledge – knowledge of terminology and specific details (e.g., music symbols), the fact (who is the president?) - Conceptual knowledge – knowledge of concept, definition, classification, categories, principles, theories, models, generalizations (e.g., theory of evolution) - Procedural knowledge – knowledge of skills, techniques and methods (e.g., how to type); e.g. computer programmer - Metacognitive knowledge – strategic knowledge, self-knowledge (e.g., awareness of one’s own knowledge, knowledge of personal strengths and weaknesses); knowledge of your own cognitive ability • Stored and accessed Theories of knowledge in cognitive psychology examines how knowledge is stored and accessed Knowledge is stored in semantic memory in the form of a “gist” – a concept constructed from a variety of experiences 1. A gist is extracted from experience – through perception 2. Stored in memory – through association, implies a structure 3. Accessed in memory – through working memory Semantic Codes: we store and recall information based on semantics (semantics is meaning); Knowledge is semantic; we store knowledge based on knowledge • Fillenbaum (1966) – Recognition of previously heard sentences – Errors were semantically similar – Subjects – college students; Listened to sentences; For example, “The door was open.”; Then asked to recall what they heard from a list of sentences; For example: The door was open. The door was closed. The door was not open. The door was not closed. – Findings – interested in errors; Subjects selected the correct sentence most of the time; Errors were most semantically similar (the door was not closed) and syntactically (grammar; sentence structure) least similar (the door was closed) Theories of Knowledge (they’re all right; all contribute to understanding how knowledge to be accessd) • Network theories • Feature-based theories • Perceptual theories • Connectionist theories Network Theories—network of interconnections; Network models work well for explaining how factual knowledge is stored and accessed • Node-link system: Nodes - things in memory; one unit in the network; a specific location in memory; Links - connections; everything is ultimately connected to everything else • Semantic memory is organized in a hierarchical, netlike structure of associated concepts • Examines knowledge in terms of interconnections (not just separate pieces of information) • Analogous to neuroanatomy – the structure is the same (neurons in the brain are all interconnected and stored by associations); spreading activation: when one node get activated, other related concepts also get activated • Meaning is determined by related concepts (related concepts to robin – bird, animal, flies, breathes, lays eggs, builds a nest) TLC Network Model • Quillian, 1968 developed a computer program called TLC – Teachable Language Comprehender; Designed to be able to learn and comprehend simple English • The first example of a network model • Semantic model has two components - Node-link system * Each node is word that represents a concept (i.e., flower) * Each node has a stored set of properties (i.e., has petals, is pretty) * Allows for negations (‘NOT – has smell’ would be stored with tulip) - Hierarchical system * Each node is directly linked to subclasses and superclasses (i.e., a rose, plants) * Properties are stored at the highest level - for efficiency (‘is red’ would be stored with rose; ‘has smell’ would be stored with flower) • Question interface: a sensibility test used to determine if we should answer a question – prevents you from taxing your attention in order to find information that is clearly not there – associated with rapid response to questions that are obviously “no” like feeling of knowing; people rely on metamemory to get a quick feeling of knowing, yes/no decision, if it is worth searching memory • Key assumptions: - Concept of spreading activation - when a node becomes active, that activation (or energy) spreads to other adjacent nodes via the links between them - Semantic distance effect - the number of nodes between concepts predicts the time it takes to respond; the greater the distance, the longer it takes (Is a canary an animal? versus Is a canary a bird? Bird answered more quickly, distance is shorter) • The original network model assumes that there is an equal distance between nodes Semantic Distance Effect • Collins and Quillian (1969) • Subjects - asked questions about categories and properties of birds: Categories – is a robin a bird? Is a robin an animal? Properties – can a robin fly? Does a robin breathe? • Measured response time for true responses – Findings: Both properties and categories show semantic distance effect - more related concepts are answered more quickly; Questions about properties of categories take longer to answer than questions about categories; Faster response time for: Related concepts and Categories • Semantic distance (for properties): “red-breasted” is stored with robin; “fly” is stored with “bird”; “breathe” is stored with “animal” Revised TLC Model Two problems with TLC network model – does not account for: • Typicality effect - Typical members of a category are more closely associated with the category than non-typical members, and we judge more quickly (robin or sparrow versus penguin or ostrich) - We judge typical examples more quickly • Semantic relatedness effect - There are inequalities across categories - Some items are judged more quickly based on associations we make Eg., Is a canary an animal? Is a chicken an animal? Chickens are more closely associated with animals than birds Canaries are more closely associated with birds than animals The model was revised and updated • Less rigid hierarchy – weighted connections - allows connections between nodes to vary in strength; some nodes have shorter links indicating stronger associations • Also allows information to be stored in more than one place (red could be stored with robin and also with fire engine) Feature Comparison Model (how knowledge is organized in brain) • Feature-based Comparison Model - Smith, Shoben, and Rips (1974) • Knowledge is organized in a giant semantic space - Space contains hills and valleys of knowledge - Hills - similar items (knowledge) cluster together to form hills, indicate central meaning of a category; valley’s info spread out • Fuzzy logic: Semantic categories are composed of unstructured sets of features - an ill-defined or “fuzzy” structure; Knowledge is extracted using logical rules - comparing combinations of features • A type of fuzzy logic model – fuzzy – unstructured; knowledge is extracted using logic – comparing features—access info in our stored memory Both models are true!!! Feature Comparison (evidence) • Rips, Shoben & Smith (1973) – Plotted responses about similarity between items – Asked subjects to rate similarity between pairs of items in two categories (birds and mammals); Used computer program to plot responses in space – Findings - results resemble hills and valleys with two dimensions– (evidence for feature model); two dimensions along horizontal and vertical axis – size (horizontal—left to right) and how predatory (vertical—top to bottom) Obvious birds such as robin and sparrow are closer to bird than they are to animal; Chicken and duck are closer to animal Perceptual Theories • Modern perceptual theories of knowledge (Barsalou, 1999) – Neurological evidence that retrieval process accesses a perception • Examines how knowledge gets stored and accessed, it is a perceptual storage system • We experience the retrieval process as a perception of what was originally stored (like the mirror neuron system – like the analog code) Example – the first time you saw a fire truck, your perceptual system stored the information neurologically. Later when you are thinking about a fire truck, you simulate the initial perceptual – visual – input • Early perceptual theories of knowledge: Initial theories prior to th the 20 century were perceptual – assumed to be recording systems; (Knowledge was stored and retrieved through perceptual experience) • Developments in cognitive science and artificial intelligence inspired new theories Knowledge is not stored and retrieved through perceptual experience - it is extracted from experience - A gist is extracted from experience – through perception, object recognition, categorization - Gists are stored and accessed in memory – through association Examples: Visual - If I ask you what the ruby slippers look like from the Wizard of Oz – you bring up a visual image; Auditory – what does it sound like to hear a cat purr Perceptual theory - demonstrates particularly well for less common images and perceptions - • Modern perceptual theories of knowledge (Barsalou, 1999) - Perceptual experiences are a distinctive source of knowledge Information gets stored in our perceptual system as a symbol - We experience the retrieval process as a perception (we can actually see them in the mind) of what was originally stored • Neurological evidence - During perceptual experience, the brain captures bottom-up patterns during activation of sensory-motor areas; Later, in a top-down manner, the same areas are reactivated to implement stored Seeing and Imagining • Kosslyn (1993) – Subjects shown letters, some small and some large; Then asked to imagine the small letters and large letters; Measured blood flow in PET scan – Findings: Same regions light up when the subjects were seeing and imagining; Perceptual and imagined processes share common brain areas Perception and Knowledge • Ganis (2004) - Subjects :Scanned in the MRI while looking at various images; Scanned again while imagining those images; Subtracted the difference in the frontal lobe – Findings – the difference between perceiving and imagining is almost zero in the frontal and parietal lobes – (Not the same activity in temporal lobe and occipital lobe (perceiving activated, not imaging) • Solomon & Barsalou (2001) support the perception is a distinct source of knowledge; knowledge is stored in terms of perception – Priming effect for concept of “mane” – Faster response time when primed with perceptually similar stimuli – Subjects – college students; Asked questions about properties of animals (e.g., Does a fish have gills? Does a bird have feathers?); Measured response time to verify – Interested in priming effect for concept of “mane”: Does a pony have a mane? Does a horse have a mane? Does a pony have a mane? Does a lion have a mane? All yes – Findings: Subjects responded more quickly if they were primed based on perceptual similarities (horse and pony;) Response time did not increase if primed based on abstract similarities – lion and pony Evidence that knowledge is stored and accessed based on perceptual qualities Connectionist Models: incorporate Feature Comparison Model and perceptual theory • Connectionist models are computational models used to explain the storage and retrieval of information from memory • Knowledge depends on the entire pattern of connections in the brain • Also called neural networks - similar to the way the nervous system works in coordinating thinking • Also called parallel distributed processing – parallel processing and spreading activation (multiple things happened in one time) • Patterns of activation for perceiving, processing and remembering knowledge • Incorporates aspects of other theories - Network - there is a network of interconnections, analogous to neuroanatomy - Feature based - there are clusters of information - Perceptual - pattern of activation is similar for perceiving and remembering Connectionism Assumptions: • Assumptions of connectionist model: - Every node is directly or indirectly connected to every other node - Some connections are excitatory (cause to fire)and some inhibitory(cause not to fire) - Connections are weighted - some are strong and some are weak – more likely to fire - likelihood of neuron firing can be calculated – the probability of reaching a threshold • Model accounts for learning - Network changes over time - Strength of connection depends on past experience - Learning occurs by back propagation – a type of feedback, can increase or decrease the likelihood of firing next time; dynamic—change weights always Connectionism – to understand how the brain works at the neural level Schemas • Schemas – are “packages” of things we know - You have a schema for horror movies, Mexican food, South Beach - Generalized knowledge about situations, events and people - Flexible, change over time with experience • Types of schemas - Role schema – tells you how a person will behave in a social context (Example: a physician, a teacher, a police officer) - Person schema – the personality and attributes of a particular person (your roommate) - Self schema – self-concept, perceptions of oneself - Gender schema - uses sex-linked characteristics to identify gender - Scripts – an event schema * Has a sequence, unfolds in a specified temporal order * Associated with a highly familiar activities (Example: going to class, taking an exam, eating in a restaurant) Scripts in Advance • Trafimow and Wyer (1993) – Subjects were presented with descriptions of routine events – 1. photocopying a piece of paper, 2. cashing a check, 3. making tea, and 4. taking the subway; In some cases, the script was identified first, by a title; In other cases, the script was identified last; Given recall memory test – Findings: When script was identified first, recall was 23%; When script was identified last, recall was 10%: Understanding from the beginning makes material more memorable Advance Organizer • Mayer & Gallini (1990) – Subjects given a difficult passage to read; Some subjects were given an advance organizer – a diagram; Then given memory and problem solving questions – Findings: Memory questions - students who were shown the diagram recalled four times more; Problem solving - students who were shown the diagram were 69% better at solving the problem Advance organizers provide structural support; helps learners interpret new information by providing a bridge between new information and what the learner already knows Office Schema • Brewer and Treyens (1981) – Findings: Office consistent items * Correct and incorrect recall of consistent and inconsistent items: * Subjects highly likely to recall office-consistent items – table, desk, chair, coffee * Subjects recalled office-consistent items not in the room, like books * Much less likely to recall office-inconsistent items – picnic basket, bottle of wine – Implications * Schemas make material more memorable * We use schemas to fill in the blanks (contributes to memory errors) – Can work the other way – schema-inconsistent events can be MORE memorable when they occur in events (in scripts) Schema-Inconsistency: Davidson (1994) • Memory for typical and atypical features in scripts • Recall and recognition better for atypical features • Schema-inconsistent information more memorable for intentional learning • Subjects were more likely to recall a schema-inconsistent sentence Davidson (1994) • Subjects read three stories regarding well-known schemas – 1. getting up in the morning, 2. going to the movies, and 3. dining at a restaurant; Given recall and recognition tests for typical and atypical actions - Typical actions – Sam and Sarah go to the movies, buy tickets, get popcorn - Atypical action - a child runs through the theater and smashes head on into Sarah • Findings: Atypical actions remembered better than typical actions In this case, schema inconsistent information was remembered better • Why? Information that is surprising and vivid is more memorable Difference between: - Incidental learning – for minor events, or when time is limited, we remember better with schema consistent information - Intentional learning – information that is vivid or surprising - we remember better with schema inconsistent information Gender Schemas: Wapman and Belle (2014) • Subjects – 197 BU psychology students and 103 children ages 7 - 17 • Given the car crash riddle: A father and son are in a horrible car crash that kills the dad. The son is rushed to the hospital; Just as he’s about to go under the knife, the surgeon says, “I can’t operate—that boy is my son!” Explain. • Findings – very small percentage solved it; 14% of the BU students; 15% of the children. Results not correlated with gender of the subject or having a mother who is a doctor; No correlation with gender of the subject or occupation of the parents; automatically imagine surgeon are men • This demonstrates: Gender schema - a type of person schema that uses sex-linked characteristics to identify gender; Stereotype - a person schema applied to an entire group is a stereotype (stereotypes are biased) Even when stereotypes are generally accurate, they cannot be applied to every member of a group Gender schemas influence our opinions, beliefs, and ability to problem solve Gender Stereotyping: Dunning and Sherman (1997) • Subjects – Asked read sentences about men and women performing activities (for example, the women at the office liked to talk around the water cooler) Later given recognition memory test; Asked to identify OLD and NEW sentences - new sentences were either gender- consistent or gender-inconsistent • Findings – interested in memory errors, incorrectly identified sentences - Consistent sentence - the women at the office liked to gossip around the water cooler - Inconsistent sentence - the women at the office liked to talk sports around the water cooler Incorrectly identified sentences consistent with gender stereotypes (29%) Incorrectly identified sentences inconsistent with gender stereotypes (18%) Integrating Knowledge Two approaches for understanding how we integrate knowledge • Constructive approach - Knowledge is similar to memory – we integrate and understand knowledge by constructing it - Like reading comprehension, we integrate information from individual sentences in order to construct larger ideas - We store the gist of information rather than word for word • Pragmatic approach : more like to remember word for word; when highly emotional - People know they need to recall the gist of information - We focus attention to aspects of messages that are most relevant • We use both - evidence for both Constructive Approach: Bransford and Franks (1971) • Identify sentences as old or new • Memory errors were consistent with the original schema • Subjects listened to sentences from different stories, then given a recognition test • Findings - false alarms when sentences were consistent with the original schema • Evidence that we do not remember word-for-word, knowledge is constructed from meaning Pragmatic Approach: Murphy and Shapiro (1994) • Subjects read a letter written by someone named Samantha; One group read a casual letter written to her cousin Paul; Another group read a sarcastic letter written to her x-boyfriend Arthur; In both letters, she says, “It never occurred to me that I would be a mother so young.” - Cousin – talking causally about her new baby - X-boyfriend – talking sarcastically Then subjects given a recognition task that included original sentences, paraphrased sentences, irrelevant sentences • Findings: Sarcastic version –more likely to remember word-for-word- more hits - correct recognition of original sentences (pragmatic); Casual condition – more likely to incorrectly recognize paraphrased sentences - more errors – incorrect recognition of paraphrased sentences (constructive approach) Demonstrated people pay more attention to exact wording if it is a criticism or insult; Constructive and pragmatic approaches are both right Chapter 9—Language I Language: social communication; the ability to communicate and work together, teach one another • Language universals: over 6500 types of language; all language are symbol system; letters are symbol for sounds; sounds join together to create words; words are symbol for things; symbolic, interpret meaning; human is the only specie having language; primates use sign language, about level of age 2 human, cannot have grammar to produce new sentences • Components of language: universal – Semantics: vocabulary meaning; past, present, future—mentor time travel; lexicon stands definition, words usage—how words mean differently in different context; words have multiple meaning/ pronunciation Syntax and grammar: interchangeable; Syntax: refers to orders of words in the sentence; Grammar: system of rules govern how we arrange words in the phrase and sentences * facilitate the extraction of meaning; a man ate a dog; a dog ate a men; same words different orders, the first one doesn’t make sense * permit the movement of grammatical categories (u r going—r u going?); * morphing: units of meaning; an aspect of grammar; -s, -ed,-un * the order of subject, object, verb differ from languages; most of languages subject always comes before the objects – Phonology: English: 44 phonological sounds; similarity between languages; units of sounds; but not all language are spoken— sign language, phonies in sign language are special temporal unites, not sounds – Pragmatics: how we use language in social contact, how we resolve ambiguity; how we speak differently in different context; talk differently to different people • Elements of language Communication Principles: we assume people talk to us something making sense • Reality principle: allows us to simplify—don’t listen every words carefully, because we assume what they tell us would make sense; use top-down processing, when we answer incorrectly • Cooperative principles: four aspects - Quantity: only what you know, need to be said, no more no less - Quality: assume people is telling the truth - Relation: stay on the topic; contribute only what’s relevant - Manner of communication: be polite, clear, don’t be rude * Audience design: tell messages based on who your audience is * Signals for turn taking: in the conversation between people, there are cues we use that indicate we are done talking, and it’s time for the other person to start speaking Ambiguity: all over the place • Polysemy: many possible meanings for a word and you can tell by sentences which meaning implied by context • Ambiguity of grammar: e.g. missing punctuation • How to resolve ambiguity: when we face ambiguous situation, we explore different possibilities, and we use context and likelihood to make decisions Non-Dominant Hemisphere • St. George et al. (1999): 90% right hand people and 60-70% left hand people are left hemisphere dominant of language; most of people are right hemisphere are non-dominant; both hemispheres work together, non-dominant hemisphere is more responsible for more abstract language—resolve ambiguity (top-down, more right hemisphere); when pay more attention on emotional tone on language, subtleties of language, figurative language; understanding humor and moral of stories, we use more right hemisphere (non-dominant) – Reading difficult passages – Left hemisphere activation with title: looks all the details – Right hemisphere activation without title: ambiguous, try to figure out meaning, give the holistic Titled Untitled Definite and Indefinite Articles: Gernsbacker & Robertson (2005) • Let subjects read passages, have ether definite or indefinite articles; indefinite articles is “A” a dog; definite article is “ The” the dog; the research shows when use these indefinite or definite articles, the way we run across the info is different – Sentences started with “A” or “The” – fMRI – right hemisphere activated by definite articles; because definite articles has more coherence and meaning, more specific Language Centers: Karl Wernicke, 1874: found that patient said nonsense words and mimic people what they’re saying; He hypothesis there is an ink between someone in the temporal lobe (Wernicke) and ability to understand language; Wernicke area is responsible for understanding language, semantic processing of language, and written and spoken language; People broken in Wernicke area cannot understand both others and themselves. Semantic analysis is handled by Wernicke area – Semantic processing – Written and spoken language • Pierre Paul Broca, 1861: both written and spoken language Broca area is a part of frontal lobes next to motor cortex; responsible for producing speech/language (make sense right next to the motor cortex, tell motor cortex how to move mouth tongue); also responsible for grammatical analysis/incoming message/ a little part of semantic analysis (Activates the motor cortex) - Grammatical analysis Aphasia: definition: impairment of language comprehension or expression; most causes are by strokes, cancer… very common problems • Expressive aphasia: expressive language—producing language— damage in Broca area; Broca aphasia—people only can get out a word or two at a time, they understand language, know what they wanna say, just cannot say out; they know they can say it; non-fluent speech, no intonation, reduced to use articles… • Receptive aphasia: receptive language—damage in Wernicke area; Wernicke aphasia: problem of understanding, get fluent speech, but words they are using don’t make sense; have difficulty understand themselves and other; maybe unawareness they’re saying nonsenses Two characteristics of words: - Neologisms: made up words - Paraphasias: produce unintent syllabus of phases or words • Global aphasia • Anomia - Someone who has mixed non-fluent aphasia has a some Wernicke’ aphasia and Broca aphasia - Global aphasia: people have very sever aphasia in both areas (receptive and expressive) - Anomic aphasia: not sever, just has trouble retrieving words, not in object recognition problem, it’s a word retrieval problems; it’s difficult to retrieve instant of category (fruits) or single object (banana); they know what they’re, just cannot name it Cookie Theft Picture – Broca’s • Let patience to describe the picture, based on patience’s description and give the aphasia diagnosis Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: the structure of language strongly influences thoughts! Now the hypothesis is called linguistic relativity Correlation between language and thought; the way we think is in language; we use language not only to communicate with others but also to ourselves; researches are interested in which extent are language and thought related; the natural of thought is influenced by language • The role of language in thought • Linguistic relativity: asking the relationship between thoughts and languages – Strong version – linguistic determinism (Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis): language in the most extreme form entirely determine the range of possible cognition process that an individual can have; – Weak version – language influences thought: language influences thoughts, but not solely determine thoughts • Radiolab Podcast: Words that Change the World: introduce the idea the role the language played in thoughts; the “ ah ha” moment is called insight, usually happened in problem solving, all the sudden we know the answer Linguistic Relativity • Support for a close connection: umber of words differs from countries; one language may have one word to express one thing and another language has several words to express one thing. Because some culture need more words – Premise 1: If the number of words for a phenomenon in two languages differ, then speakers may understand the phenomena differently. – Premise 2: If the number of words for a phenomenon in two languages is the same, then speakers will tend to understand them equivalently. • Cross-cultural research understanding color: how different culture has different numbers of color Universalist Theory of Color: Berlin and Kay (1969) DO NOT support linguistic relativity: they thought every person perceive the color in the same way regardless their culture and language, so thoughts and language are separate • Concept of Universalist theory: - All languages follow a universal color pattern: overall are 11 color categories - All cultures experience color in a very similar way • Research: Sort 329 standard color chips into groups - All cultures sorted into the same eight groups – All cultures identified the same color chip as the best example for each group – Color is same between cultures regardless language - Some cultures only use two words for color: black and white (light and dark); cultures have 3 words for color: black, white and red… • Limitation of the study: 1. Use color chips: laboratory methods to creating color system that are not necessary representative of what color is linked in the real word (hard describe color of sky by chip) 2. Critic to the Methodology: in some language, the color terms are difficult to define, eliminate these cultures in these sample, if they have difficult to understand the color based on the culture, they just exclude the color from the study. Linguistic Relativity • Color is top-down processing • Himba tribe of Namibia – They don’t have the name of color blue, but they have a lot of color green; they can see the green square more easily than us. However, they cannot see the blue square in the green set – Have five words to describe color – Color perception is influenced by language and memory • Support for weak version of linguistic relativity: – Other study: put children in the scan machine and let children look at different color. Finding: children before have language, their right hemispheres are responsible for color processing; as children get language, they use left hemisphere – Support color is top-down processing: color is created in brain both from the language you speak and also from memories, past experiences; memory influence the cognition • The concept is the color does not exist in the physical word. Color perception is top-down processing Chapter 10 Language II Reading • Biological secondary ability – Biological primary ability: automatic universal easily required they are biological; spoken language is biological primary ability, all you have to do to learn to speak language is be exposed to it during childhood – Biological secondary ability: not automatic, effortful, must be taught; learning is more difficult; reading language is Biological secondary ability and build up on primary… have to speak first, then learn to read it, require motivation • Speaking language is auditory, spread out across time, cannot control read input, word boundary is unclear; Reading is visual, spread out across spaces, control reader input (reread), word boundary is very clear • Speech recoding: the process of reading, turn the written words into spoken words/auditory signals. Indirect access route of reading: Three steps: – Graphemic encoding: graphing be a symbols and letters, get decoded by speech sounds; children learn sounds of letters and then they can connects these sounds to produce/ say out new words – Subvocalization: saying in head what is you’re reading – Meaning extracted: after saying the words in the head, help us connect the semantic meaning of the words, help extract the meaning of what we are reading • Direct access route of reading: some words cannot sound out; flash cards; speed readers, now days teach children both routes; don’t pronounce to themselves in mind • Evidence: ask subjects to perform a silent reading task, and they have attached electrodes to their lips tongues and throat; Finding: during the task, students’ the muscles of speaking are activated unperceptively Indirect Access—speech recording • Luo, et al. (1998): ask subjects if word pairs are related in meaning or not. Finding: students made more error words (lion-bare) that are sounded like semantically related – Determine if word pairs are related in meaning (LION-BARE not bear!!) – Subjects make errors when word pairs sound semantically related Tongue Twisters: support indirect access • Research finding: people read tongue twisters more slowly, even they read to them selves, in mind, because they use indirect access rule. Saying to yourself, slow yourself down Visual Recoding—evidence of direct access: get immediately from words’ perception to words’ meanings • Locke (1978): ask hearing and deaf students to read a passage silent to themselves and they were told cross particular instant letter “e”. the reason we target the letter “e” is that in some cases the e is silent. Finding: understanding of passage is equal – Hearing students – more mistakes identifying silent “e”: they use indirect access route – Deaf students – equal mistakes for voiced and silent “e”: indicate deaf students use direct access route Direct-Access Route: visual recoding • Bradshaw and Nettleton (1974) – Visually similar word pairs but different in sounds (horse – worse); some subjects are asked to read both words out loud; the first word slow down the second word; other subjects read first word silently and the read out loud the second one, test the reaction time of saying second word – Findings • Slower response time reading both words out loud • No hesitation when reading the first word silently: reading first word silently use the direct access route Dual route approach: the way we use both direct/indirect routes Word Superiority Effect: It’s easier to read letters that in words than the letters by themselves or in a nonsense word; ask questions and record reaction time • Reicher (1969) they present ether word or non-word or just letters by themselves – Most accurate when a letter was presented in a real word – Importance of top-down processing • This sentence is very easy to read, but it is not just because you can see all of the letters. This sxntence is missixg a few letxers, but it can be read wxth little extra exfort. In txis sxntexce, exery xourxh lexter xas bxen rxplaxed wxth ax x, bux you xan sxill xead xt. Cax yox rexd txis xenxenxe, ix whxch xvexy txirx lextex is xisxinx? Hxw xbxux txix oxe, ix wxish xvxrx oxhxr xextxr xi xoxe? • Top down processing, fill in blank; use direct access route Nonverbal Communication • Embodied cognition: Cognition is influenced by the aspect of one’s body. There is ongoing connection between language system and motor system • Gestures: visible moments and body movements are used to communicate; using gestures aid communication; gestures not only help listeners understand, but also help speakers express well, more easier to find words. Cross-culture similarity • Eye contact: signs of confident and respect; if interesting, eyes dilating; culture different: good in U.S. ; some cultures too much eye contact is disrespectful • Hand-shake: first impression; firm straight; palms down—dominant Gestures: Frick-Horbury & Guttentag (1998): subjects are given the low frequency nouns; some subjects hands free or hold hands – Identify a target word – Subjects performed better in hands-free condition Lying: • Eye contact: avoid eye contact or make too eye contact—DOES NOT hold up research!! Blinking: people blinking more are more likely line • Looking left or right: left—remembering; right—constructing something; DOSE NOT supported by researches! • Gestures: micro-expression, universal • Intuition: depends on how you know well the person; if you know somebody very well, intuition is quite correct Chapter 11: Problem Solving Problem Solving: • Difference between problem solving and decision-making: - Problem solving: the goal is overcome the obstacle; three features - Decision-making: arrive the solution/conclusion; not necessary overcome obstacle • Three features of problem solving – An objective: a goal – An obstacle: overcome – A transformation: transformation of your understanding form the beginning to when you reach your goal—new understanding • Representation: most import of aspect how you represent problems The Buddhist Monk Problem Very often by solving problems, we using things like diagrams, visual images, symbols… • Solution: imagine two monks • Problem representation is very import: more easier to solve if draw a diagram; visually represent the problem Well-Defined Problems: opposite to ill-defined problem • Well-defined problems: Have a clear described goal, have all the information you need to solve the problems, and when you do solve it, it’s obvious when you solve the problem • Well-defined problem: $2 to open a link, $3 to close a link How can you join the chains into a closed necklace for $15? • Creativity: coming up a novel and useful solution; divergent thinking Ill-Defined Problems • Ill-defined problems are not defined so clear, the methods of solving the problems are not clear, not clear whether you reach the solution or not. Ethics, molarity. Cross cultures, may get different responses; Should I marry this person; or do I need to choice psy major? • The trolley dilemma: an example. To study subjects’ solutions to the ill- defined problem: not the right or wrong answer Algorithms versus Heuristics: ways to solve problems • Algorithm: is formula; ruler procedure; always bring up the correct response; instantaneous • Heuristics: methods of solving problems there are short-cuts; mental short-cuts help solving problems more quickly than going through every possible solutions; use intuition; advertisement—decide to buy which brand – Analogy: we think about other similar problems that we have solved in the past, and we apply that previously knowledge to the current problems; is most common strategy in problem solving; analogy problem have same underlines, structures and solutions in another problem, but in different specific details; * Have same isomorphs: same underlines structures, basic foundations are same – Hill-climbing: if you try to climb a mountain, one of the best to reach the top, is keep climbing up; try to reach a goal, keep working towards goal, maybe eventually help you get there; people have tendency to not work backwards – Means-Ends: when you have a problem, better to divide it into several sub-problems, and solve sub-problems to help to reach the goal; just do it Duncker’s Radiation Problem—analogy demonstration • Gick & Holvoak, (1983): subjects are given stories, one of stories is radiation problems solve, suppose you are doctor and in front of a stomachic tumor patience; you have your disposal rays to destroy human tissue to direct insufficient and intensity. How can you use these rays to destroy these tumor and not destroy the surrounding tissue – Baseline solution rate 10% – Solution rate after analogous problem 30% – Solution rate when told that a previously heard story is a hint 70% Greeno’s Elves and Goblins Problem—hill-climbing • Need bring people backwards to drop out • We locked to thinking backwards Means-Ends Heuristic • Removing obstacles in a series of sub-problems • Effective for problems that defy one-shot solutions • Tower of Hanoi Non-Insight Problems Example: Mary is 10 years younger than twice Susan’s age. Five years from now, Mary will be 8 years older than Susan’s age at that time. How old are Mary and Susan? • When you solving non-insight problem, usually these problem are solved by step and step version; as you keep working get closer and closer to your answer, able to use hill-climbing Heuristic, the initial step of representative course is closure, cause if you represent the problem incorrectly at the beginning, you solution will be wrong Insight Problems: Usually seeing very difficult, maybe even impossible to solve, when you get the answer it appear suddenly, “ a ha” moment • Metcalfe (1986) – Very small increases in feeling of warmth until problem is solved – At the beginning very low level of warmth (incubation), when you get the solution and then get the very high lever warmth; – Incubate the solution unconsciously and sometimes when you walk away the problem, you stop to make a conscious effort to solve the problem—Then, that’s the moment get insight Creativity: people tends to have different views of it • Divergent thinking (Guildford, 1967): number of solutions that you can come up to the problem, that measure divergent thinking; two criteria: 1. Solutions have to be novel, 2 have to be useful • Convergent thinking: opposite to the divergent thinking; one best highly creative response/ solution; two concepts: 1, incubation 2. Insight, • Incubation and insight Mental Set: a way we thinking a tendency to solve a particular problem in a particular way without flexible; single approach; Functional fixation: use the way we think about objects; we tends to think of one tool is to use in a one particular situation/ purpose, not useful for other things • Duncker’s Candle Problem (1945) Factors that Influence Creativity • Previous experiences: more experience, more draw from • Fear/anxiety: lack of fear/anxiety improve creativity; some people afraid of wrong, cannot be creative • Desire/motivation: if you think you are creative you might be; if you think you are not creative, you are definitely not; need desire and motivation • Mood: in a good mood, more likely to come up creative solution • Sleep: good sleep, more creative Maier’s Two String Problem • Illustrate mental set and functional fixation • Test creativity • When you give people a time frame, they are less likely to solve the problem, even within the same amount of time of not being gave time constraint, psychological knowing you have time of it, pressure people, make them less creative The Role of Emotion • Baron & Thomley (1994): asked subjects watch comedy or boring meth lectures; the role of dopamine – 20% of neutral-mood group solved the Duncker candle problem – 75% of the positive-mood group solved the problem REM Sleep and Creativity • Mednick, 2009 – Remote Associates Test (RAT): give you three words, and what’s the forth words related the other three; then give them rem sleep, non rem sleep or rest – On post-test only the REM group improved – What word is associated with all three words? – cottage, swiss, cake Chapter 12: Reasoning Aspects of cognition: attention, perception, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning, decision making Reasoning: is highest order of cognition, and the most intelligent, ability of rational thoughts, cognitive process goes beyond information given; allow you to draw new conclusion based on the old info. E.g. what causes cancers? Test hypothesis Dual Process Theory Liner and non-liner processing (which cost more, which one is faster) Heuristic processing is automatic and fast and god level response: answer is one Analytic processing is that thinking is a more slow control manner; more accurate, require more attention, memory and cognition; answer depends on expected life-length Principle of Lexical Marking: how language plays the role in reasoning Lexical means pertain two words; • Markedness: if something is marked is more difficult to process than the related term that is unmarked, e.g. lion/lioness; lioness is marked and it’s concept related to the lion, process slower • Lexical opposites - unmarked and marked word pairs: the words on the left are unmarked, right is marked; how good/long/wide is, answer more quickly – Good – bad – Long – short – Wide – narrow Marked and Unmarked Terms • Clark (1969) – Problem A • Adam is better than Bill. • Bill is better than Chuck. – Problem B • Chuck is worse than Bill. • Bill is worse than Adam. – Students made twice as many errors and took 10% longer on B than A; answer A is more quickly, because of principle of lexical marking Picture Encoding: • Banks, Clark and Lucy (1975): principle of lexical marking, – A. Which balloon is higher? Subjects answered more quickly which one is higher, because balloons go up – B. Which balloon is lower? Principle of Congruity: if the context of the dimension matches the context of the dimension of the question, answer process more quickly • Banks, Clark and Lucy (1975): also ask which yo-yo is higher or lower – A. Which yo-yo is higher? – B. Which yo-yo is lower? Students answer more quickly which one is lower; relevant dimension determining how quickly you are able to process these questions • Analogous to encoding specificity: encoding specific; when you encoding the info, context matches when retrieval, it’s much easier to retrieve the info Types of Reasoning • Deduction: generality to specify, use the principle of logic, e.g. syllogisms • Induction: induction occurs when you generalize from specifics: gather evidences to get a conclusion; • Abduction: a type of induction, very arrive the best explanation, best conclusion based on the facts Syllogisms: begin with premises (whether true or not), then draw with conclusion; from general to specific—deduction; A three statement logical form – Two premises assumed to be true – One conclusion, valid or invalid • Often uses quantifiers – all, none and some Sample Syllogism—quantifiers • All A are B. (Assumed to be TRUE) • All B are C. (Assumed to be TRUE) • Therefore, all A are C. (VALID) Euler Circles: 1775, Euler worked with students to solve this type of problems; to create this diagram to help solving the problem dramatically. Trick: we have to search negative evidences (hard to find invalid) Sample Syllogisms • All A are B. Some B are C. Therefore, some A are C. • No A are B. No B are C. Therefore, no A are C. Conversion Representation: treat statement as reversible; all A are B does not mean all B are A—if people made this error called a conversion error – illicit conversion • Bias – tendency to treat sentences as reversible • “All A are B” does not mean “all B are A” Solving Syllogisms: to see how people solve real world syllogisms problems related to current events • Morgan & Morton (1944) – If some X’s are Y’s, and if some Z’s are X’s, which of the following is the best response? True is 5 1. Then all Z’s are Y’s. 2. Then some Z’s are Y’s. most common answer (75%) 3. Then no Z’s are Y’s. 4. Then some Z’s are not Y’s. 5. None of the conclusions seem to follow logically. (16%) Confirming Existing Beliefs: analogy to the last one, use the logic and reason to come up the conclusion; True is 5 • Some ruthless men deserve a violent death. One of the most ruthless men was Heydrich, the Nazi hangman. • Which of the following is the best response? 1. Heydrich, the Nazi hangman, deserved a violent death. (37%) 2. Heydrich, the Nazi hangman, may have deserved a violent death. Most common answer (56%) 3. Heydrich, the Nazi hangman, did not deserve a violent death. 4. Heydrich, the Nazi hangman, may not have deserved a violent death. 5. None of the conclusions seem to follow logically. (1%) • The % is different form analogies: cause people biased by their previous beliefs Belief Bias • Morgan & Morton (1944) – With X, Y and Z terms • 75% chose #2 • 16% chose #5 (correct) – Nazi Germany issue • 56% chose #2 • 37% chose #1 • 1% chose #5 (correct) Conditional Reasoning: another type of deductive reasoning; use logical correctly, can tell conclusion valid or not • “If P then Q”: if then statement – P is the antecedent: – Q is the consequent: come after p • The reasoner must determine the validity of a proposition, given a statement – Statement: If it is December, then it is winter. – Proposition: It is not winter, therefore it is not December. Valid or not? Propositional Calculus: reasoning formula • Four types of reasoning – Two valid arguments • Modus ponens: affirm the antecedent (valid): the antecedent is true and the consequent is also true—valid way to reason; affirm the consequence is invalid • Modus tollens: deny the consequent is valid, most tolerance; deny the antecedent is invalid – Two invalid arguments If it is raining, the streets will be wet. Which of the following is true? 2/4 1. It is not raining, therefore the street are not wet. 2. The streets are not wet, therefore it is not raining. 3. The streets are wet, therefore it is raining. 4. It is raining, therefore the streets are wet. Hypothetical Thinking Test: Formal operation; cognitive development; even post-formal; use conditional reasoning; when you answer the conditional reasoning question, the correct answer does not have to be the truth or fact just need to follow premises • If diamonds do not scratch glass, and glass does scratch glass, which of the following statements is true if your engagement ring does not scratch glass? D is answer A. It is a diamond B. It is not a diamond (the truth, but logic incorrect) C. It is glass D. It is not glass E. It is neither diamond nor glass B. Premises: C. If the ring is a diamond, it does not scratch glass. D. If the ring is glass, it does scratch glass. E. Valid conclusions: F. If the ring is a diamond, it does not scratch glass. G. If the ring scratches glass, it is not a diamond. H. If the ring is glass, it scratches glass. I. If the ring does not scratch glass, it is not glass. J. So if the ring does not scratch glass, it is _____________ The Wason Card Problem: if then rule • Peter Wason (1968) : give subjects 4 cards and each card has a letter on one side and a number on the other side. There is a rule: – Rule: If a card has a vowel on one side, then it has an even number on the other side. – Which of the following card or cards would you turn over to gather conclusive evidence of the rule? Deny the consequence: test 7 has a vowel on the other side; don’t need to care about 4, Confirmation Bias • Findings – 33% turned over E – 46% turned over E and 4: without logic conditional reasoning – Only 4% turned over the correct combination Content Effect: • Griggs & Cox (1982): give reasoning test use real word example – If you are drinking alcohol, you must be at least 21 years old. – 75% of students chose the correct combination: do much better, because they can related to the real world; beer and 16 Chapter 13: Decision Making Decision-making: come to the final decision, final step of decision-making which not involved in reasoning or problem solving; is the process of, also a choice, waving options in order to arrive the final choice; people use all sources to help them make the decision, more heuristic, short-cut… but often lead bias Unequal likelihood: likelihood of event occurring is a particular outcome is not always equal, and you make the decision it’s good to take that into consideration Unequal value: need to take subject value into consideration, when making decisions, subject utility: you may value something more than I value something, you care, I don’t care Emotion involved in decision-making: emotion are tied to our decision, opinions/attitudes of something; you like something maybe it is link to your positive emotion, give you pleasure; every emotion is influenced by the opinion and every opinion is influenced the emotion; without emotion, we don’t even make a basic decision (which color do you like?) Unconscious Thought Theory: Sometime you have an important decision need to make, it’s better to step away from it for a while, don’t make immediate decision or sitting down and try to wave you options logically and think through the problem more clearly (when the thing is variable, buy a house/car); better to incubation • Dijksterjuis (2006, 2011): present subjects info of 4 cars, quality and frequency car, give one group a immediate decision and give another group a distraction test and then ask them to rate the car – Quality car features: high quality, important attributes; Frequency car features: have more unimportant qualities – Subjects asked to rate four cars – Immediate decision or unconscious thought condition – Finding: subjects in unconscious thought condition consistently rate the car higher/better than those in the immediate decision group Availability Heuristics: people make a judgment based on how they easily remember and leads to bias decision-making; in the logical relation, based on emotion reaction: e.g. refused to take a flight; problem based on how easily you can remember the example • Tversky and Kahneman (1973) – Are there more words in the English language that begin with the letter K or that have K as their third letter? Answer is third – 70% of students say more words beginning with K; because it’s easy to thinking of words with the beginning of K, based on easiness of retrieval; more available Representative Heuristic and Base Rate Fallacy: people make decisions based on their expectations/ patterns/ believes; e.g. if you see someone preying, you believe they believe god—representative; the problem is based on similarity • Kahneman & Tversky (1973) – Engineer high group (70% engineers, 30% lawyers) 80% think Jack is engineer – Engineer low group (30% engineers, 70% lawyers) 40% think jack is engineer – What is the likelihood that Jack is an engineer? Based on the description of Jack; jack in the group – All subjects rated the likelihood greater than 90%, based on the descriptions; illustrate the representativeness, people assume Jack is engineer, because he sounds like; also take the base rate into the consideration; base-rate: how often items occurs in the population, the relative frequency – Base rate neglect: people fail to take base rate into account Small Sample Fallacy: • Tversky and Kahnman (1974) in a town there are two hospital, one large, one small; large hospital about 45 babies born each day, in the other only about 15, as you known, 15% babies are boys; for period of one year, each hospital record the days on which more 60% of babies are boys, which hospital record more such days—answer is small – Which hospital, large or small, has more days on which 60% or more of the babies were male? – Findings: simple size has the likelihood to affect the outlier; large sample are more represent the population; small sample are more likely has outliers • 56% – about the same • 22% – the large hospital • 22% – the small hospital Anchoring Heuristic: we have tendency to anchor/attach our thoughts to particular reference points and making the decision; we have tendency to rely on too heavily on one piece of info • Tversky and Kahneman (1982): ask students to estimate what’s the answer are – 8 X 7 X 6 X 5 X 4 X 3 X 2 X 1 = ? – 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 = ? – Findings • If the first number was 8, median estimate was 2,250 • If the
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