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chapter 10 lecture

by: Jordyn

chapter 10 lecture ISP 203B

GPA 3.6
Natural Hazards and Envioroment
Tyrone Rooney

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Natural Hazards and Envioroment
Tyrone Rooney
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordyn on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISP 203B at Michigan State University taught by Tyrone Rooney in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 77 views.


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Date Created: 02/27/15
Ch 10 lecture climate amp weather Water cycle 0 Need to get water form the ocean into the Atmosphere atmosphere has 0001 water not a primary place for water 0 Moisture in the air comes from evaporation from the surface water and vegetation o What would happen fthere was no evaporation or transpiration Moisture in the air humidity 0 Warm air can hold more water 0 Thus when air cools it cant hold as much moisture gt it dumps it as rain Moisture what is relative humidity 0 Relative humidity in actual quantity of water per unit of air maximum quantity at the same temp x 100 o More air in summer What causes precipitation rain or snow 0 Rising air expands amp cools Above base of clouds 100 relative humidity Above base of the clouds air is saturated with water clouds are droplets of water air plane shakes more Below the base of the clouds air is not saturated with water Air concentration above and below is the same Base is determined by coolness higher warm air cant hold as much water Why is it cooler on top of a mountain Air expands and cools at higher elevations Weight has to do with gravity mass is the same everywhere because same of atoms Since atoms expand mass decreases as you go higher When water condenses it releases energy thus air cools less once moisture begins to condense at saturation Elevation Meters E s3 C1 3 l V V lfyciu climb Wm 391 El39 l metersquot air temper mre drops f C J r I D 5 If E 3911 Eli quotI 5 Eliquot ilempera lure of air mass DE 0 When you climb 1000m air temperature drops 10 degrees Celsius dry adiabatic rate 0 When you climb above 2000m where 100 relative humidity it increases 5 degrees Celsius every 1000m wet adiabatic rate When water converts from a liquid to a gas it takes in energy Order and disorder disorder in air order in liquid to get rid of disorder the air surrounding the water is HOT What would the temperature be after a ass of air shown in this diagram rose to 2000m before reaching 100 relative humidity it then rose another 2000m before falling back to zero meters 30 0 Because air that falls is dry it falls at the dry adiabatic rate it doesn t fall in reverse Why does air rise Air pushed over a mountain rises amp cools orographic effect Moist air rising over Bitteroot Range Montana cooks amp moisture condenses into water droplets there will be wet side and dry side of mountains California coast wet over mountains drier and over another set of mountains even drier Warm air rapidly rises cools condenses to form rain or hail Flow patterns near highand lowpressure cells High pressure 0 As air fails it warms and can hold more moisture 0 Dry weather Low pressure 0 As air rises it cools and can gold less moisture 0 Wet weather Coriolis effect If you point your right thumb in the direction of rising or falling air your bent ngers point in the direction of air rotation in the southern hemisphere use your left hand ex with low pressure air rising winds rotate counter clockwise as viewed looking down on a map 0 Northern air rises counter clock wise and descends clockwise o Southern rises clockwise and descends counter clock wise Bucket at the equator and I put a hole in the bottom of this bucket depends on the bucket and how you ll it Something that doesn t exist cant show with bucket because its connected to the ground Coriolis effect shifts right in the northern hemisphere o Earths circumference is 25000 miles 0 Thus velocity due to rotation at equator is 1000 mileshourr 0 At 45 degrees north it would be 500 mileshour 0 At pole not moving because you re spinning around yourself besides rotation around sun at equator moving very fast 0 When jump you don t land in a different area jump on angle so land on same area 0 When you re in air for long time the earth moves because your left at Detroit s speed not at Cancun s speed 0 Shooting bullet can have small impact 0 Only thing that is spun by Coriolis effect is the air and oceans Normal ocean circulation clockwise in northern hemisphere and counter clockwise in southern Right hand rule has nothing to do with ocean currents El Nino goes form normal conditions in the ocean in warm Indonesia to the cold area of south American then trade winds go back toward Indonesia in the ocean the circulation is opposite change in patterns in the paci c every year around Christmas helps warm water around the whole ocean Trade winds weaken equatorial warm water moves east to coast of south America Normal to la Nina trade winds strong equatorial warm water moves west to Indonesia opposite of El Ni o because lowers seasurface temperature El Ni o impacts the weather in US warmer weather up in Michigan one degree and Florida is a little colder FloridaCalifornia become wetter Problems for ocean shing off Peru no upwelling water to bring nutrients to surface El Ni o causes warmer conditions in the Midwest El Nino has its maximum impact in December starts in march look for warm water across the paci c North Atlantic oscillation also contributes to change in weather Factors that control climate longterm weather 0 Latitude distance from equator cooler towards poles o Wind velocity and humidity dehydrates vegetation 0 Ocean proximity humidity and precipitation o Altitude temperature snowpack heavy snowpack delays plant growth 0 Albedo re ectivity of ground surface darker surface heats ground more Drought 0 Prolonged dry period lower than average precipitation Not abrupt or dramatic proceeds slowly 0 Drop in useable water reservoirs in groundwater storage andor in stream ow 0 Timing of precipitation matters winter snowpack tends to melt slowly and seep into ground summer rainsgt run off ampET 0 Change in rainfall patterns 0 Dustbowl 1934 the US severe drought and bad farming practices turned US plains into the quotDust Bowlquot A lot of people went home after great depression to work on the farm and caused drought o Drought also widespread across US in 2007 Dust storms Africa can rain dust Lake effect snow lce storm cold snow then melts at warmer layer then touches something cold and becomes ice or freezes another cooler layer Climate change 0 increase in average temperature around the earth 0 changes in the broader range of conditions including temperature precipitation circulation and the occurrence of extreme weather that occur over large regions and are sustained over long periods of time 0 Earth is in a cold cycle we should be getting colder but were getting warmer Climate record methods o Instruments modern Historical records 100 s years Tree rings 100510005 years Pollen from bogs cquot14 1000510 0005 years Oxygen isotopes from ice 100000 years 0000 O O Rainfall Glacial deposits millions of years Sediments rocks amp fossils billions of years How do we measure longterm temperature change 0 O O O 0 Oxygen isotopic composition of ice cores Isotope ratio of current iceto current ocean water Lighter 16O is preferentially evaporated Easier to vaporize a light molecule Oceans become enriched in 18O as water evaporates The isotopic composition of the oceans is controlled by how much ice is store in the caps The more ice stored in the caps the heavier the O isotope ratio in oceans Why does earth have seasons it tilts closer to sun Why do we have day and night 0 Earth completes one rotation around its axis in 24 hours Why do we have seasons 0 O O 0 O 0 Earth move in an orbit around the sun once per year In the summer the earths northern hemisphere tilts towards the sun In winter the earth s northern hemisphere tilts away from the sun Flashlight directy pointed down ward is brighter than one pointed at an angle What season is it the northern hemisphere in the graph summer Michigan never gets vertical rays but in the summer the rays are quotmore verticalquot Natural causes for climate change 0 0 Earth wobbles on its axis and can lead to climate change The wobble wont change in a lifetime Precipitation changes 0 O OO Areas closer to poles amp equator will become wetter warmer midlatitude regions will get drier More energy in atmosphere gt more storms Hurricanes amp tornadoes gt likely more frequent and stronger Increased incidence of droughts and oods lf humans do nothing temp could raise 3 degrees Celsius The Gulf Stream keeps Europe warm given its relative high latitude The same warm nearsurface ocean current cools in the artic sinks and returns south in the deep ocean Green house effect 0 O 0 Short waves heat ground Ground emits long waves heat Glass re ects long waves 0 Green house gasses have similar effect 0 Earth would be uninhabitable average temp below freezing Rocks soil and water absorb short wavelength solar radiation The earth reradiates the energy as longwavelength infrared heat Molecules in the atmosphere absorb some of the heat and the atmosphere becomes warmer 0 Jet contrails add carbon dioxide and other pollutants to the atmosphere Their in uence is shown by the number of tracks on a clear day over the southern states They also reduce solar radiation to earths surface 0 Greenhouse gas percenanges amp relative global warming potiental 39 C02 55 39 N20 6 CFCs 15 CH4 24 Increase in carbon dioxide since 1700 0 We now have the highest C02 in the last 660000 years 0 Carbon emissions electricity plants and deforestation highest Rapid Melting in the Artic 0 Ice shelves of northern Canada are now 90 smaller than in 1906 0 Arctic sea ice declining about 8 per decade 0 Exposed water absorbs nine times more solar radiation than ice gt causes more melting 0 Changes in solar radiation are minimal Can we avert greenhouse warming 0 Developed and developing countries contributions in total and per capita Main stratgeies for minimizing global warming 0 Reduce C02 emissions carbon tax Alternatives are nuclear power solar power wind power electric autos energy efficiency sequestering C02 placing it into permanent storage ex as calcium carbonate rock 0 Increase carbon sinks Reforestation fertilizing the oceans inclined reefs o Decrease methane emissions Main effects of climate change why should we care 0 Rise of sea level costal erosion O O O O And most of the population lives along coasts Changes in moisture distributions Increase in temperature deserts loss of crops ect More extreme weather Drought Flooding Storms including more strong hurricanes tornadoes Northward migration of tropical disasters 0 West Nile virus ticks malaria mosquitos dengue fever ect Global warming causes of sea level rise 0 0 Ice from land masses melts Greenland amp Antarctica What about artic and Antarctic oating ice how much effect if it melts Thermal expansion of ocean water Sea level trends 0 000 O 03m sealevel rise per century would increase coastal erosion Northeast lose 15 to 30 meters of coastline California 65 to 130 meters Florida up to 300 meters Average commercial beach is only 30m wide Potential 4m rise next century most likely less than 05m Melting of Greenland ice sheet 78m of sea level rise Melting all of Antarctic ice sheet 73m of rise Thermal expansion of water signi cant Relation between ice extent and land levels 0 0 As water is stored in glaciers sea level drops More land in todays shallow coastal regions There would be and 80meter rise in sea level if all of Antarctica and Greenland melted all of Florida underwater


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