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PSY#230 EXAM#2 NOTES Psy230

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Dr. Christine Delgado
Child and Adolescent Development
Dr. Christine Delgado
Class Notes
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eureka on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy230 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Christine Delgado in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Child and Adolescent Development in Psychlogy at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 04/23/16
Brain Development  Neural Tube - 2 part: top brain cord region and bottom spinal cord region - Forms between days 19 and 27 after conception; form in early embryo period - Develops into central Nervous system - Importance of folic acid: enable tube to develop; When mothers do not consume enough folic acid, their babies are at risk of spina bifida, a disorder in which the embryo’s neural tube does not close properly during the first month of pregnancy; damage to spinal cord and the nervous system  Neurons: The basic unit of the brain and the rest of the nervous system is the neuron, a cell that specializes in receiving and transmitting information. - Neurons: nerve cells that are specialized to receive and transmit messages from one part of the body to another - Synapse: the gap between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron - Cell body: contains the basic biological machinery that keeps neuron alive; contains genre and DNA - Dendrites: allow one neuron to receive input from may thousands od other neurons - The tubelike structure at the other end of the cell body is the axon, which sends information to other neurons. The axon is wrapped in myelin, a fatty sheath that allows it to transmit information more rapidly. o At the end of the axon are small knobs called terminal buttons, which release neurotransmitters, chemicals that carry information to nearby neurons. Neurotransmitters cross synapses to carry information between neurons. - Neurogenesis: the formation of new neurons: o All Neurons forms before birth, prenatal - Synaptogenesis: the formation of new synapses: the number of synapses, reaching a peak at about the first birthday. o Most synapses forms after birth, postnatal  Neural Competition - Synaptic Pruning: synapses begin to disappear gradually, a phenomenon known; This pruning depends on the activity of the neural circuits: synapses that are active are preserved but those that aren’t active are eliminated o Cluster at 2 years old; decreasing at 15 years old; be more efficient o Brain adapts based on environment that babies are all in different o Beginning in infancy and continuing into early adolescence o Pruning sequence: first sensory and motor function; then language  and spatial skills; next attention and planning  - Neuron Death: - Synapses do not pruning, brain cannot work efficiently, result in autistic Birth 7 years 15 years Autistic Control  Role of Experience - Environmental input influences experience­expectant growth: Over the  course of evolution, human infants have typically been exposed to some  forms of stimulation that are used to adjust brain wiring, strengthening  some circuits and eliminating others. Brain develops based on expectation; Brain know needs (walk; recognize faces; language) - Experience­dependent growth denotes changes in the brain that are not  linked to specific points in development and that vary across individuals  and across cultures; human can do a lot of things brains cannot expect, so  brain make new synapses based on experience; bicycle example: old path  is still there, but need to be reactivated.  New synapses formed.  Myelination - Myelination: process by which nerve cells become coated with myelin o Starting prenatally, develop after birth until 20; more purple more myelin o Synapses connection can become more stronger through practices - Myelin: fatty tissue that insulates the axon; improve coordination (eye-hand coordination: toddlers caught a ball) and reaction time; speeds up electricity info transmission - brain develop rapidly at 3-5 years old - Toddlers take time to catch the ball, due to the information processing  Lateralization: Process by which each hemisphere of the brain takes on specific functions - Frontal cortex: Personality; the ability to make and carry out plans - Left hemisphere: language; reason - Right hemisphere: Artistic and musical abilities. Perception of spatial relations and recognize faces and emotions - Different areas have different functions - Lateralization process is finished by 10 years old  Plasticity: the ability of the brain to change or adaption. - Young children often recover more skills after brain injury than older  children and adults, apparently because functions are more easily  reassigned in the young brain - Infants’ brains are more flexible, because they overproduce synapses and  have not finished lateralization; after 10 brain tends to be less flexible  - Brain be less flexible while finishing lateralization  Perceptual Development:  Determining Perceptual Abilities - All senses start to develop before birth: study premature baby ect. - Self-report: ask questions and children answers; not for infants - Habituation-Dishabituation: test infants o When a novel stimulus is presented, babies pay much attention, but they pay less attention as it becomes more familiar, a phenomenon  known as habituation. Get used to it;  Baby distinguish the green and orange; the triangle and circle - Preferenc e: infants do self report Baby prefer to look at faces - Behavior: look at facial expression (taste); activity levels - Physiological Reaction: heart rate; brain waves (EEG) - Growth of a Specialized Brain o electroencephalography, involves measuring the brain’s electrical  activity from electrodes placed on the scalp, as shown in the top  photo. o functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), uses magnetic  fields to track the flow of blood in the brain.  Vision: the least mature sensors, functional, less practice - Visual Acuity: the ability to see fine detail; Visual acuity is defined as the smallest pattern that can be distinguished dependably. - Most infants will look at patterned stimuli instead of plain, nonpatterned  stimuli. - Usually the vision be clear at 6 months; 20/20vision - Depth perception: the ability to judge the distance of objects from one another and from ourselves o Perceive how far away you’re from something o Infants can perceive depth by the time they are old enough to  crawl. o Test for depth perception:  Perceptually baby sees the drop pattern of table (actually not drop for protecting baby). If baby have the depth perception, he don’t crawl into that part. Issue: if baby cannot crawl, this test doesn’t work, so here has another one  Something fly to a baby, (but will across baby, not hurt baby). Baby (one month), more likely to flinch the something to be punched. Baby’s heart rate drops 1  When babies as young as 1 2 months are simply placed on the deep side of the platform, their heartbeat slows down.  Heart rate often decelerates when people notice something  interesting, so this would suggest tha2 1 / ­month­olds  notice that the deep side is different. At 7 months, infants’  heart rate accelerates, a sign of fear. Thus, although young  babies can detect a difference between the shallow and  deep sides of the visual cliff, only older, crawling babies  are actually afraid of the deep side  How do infants infer depth? Among the first are kinetic cues, in which motion is used to estimate depth. Visual expansion refers to the fact that as an object moves closer, it fills an ever-greater proportion of the retina. Motion parallax, refers to the fact that nearby moving objects move across our visual field faster than those at a distance. Retinal disparity (4 months) is based on the fact that the left and right eyes often see slightly different versions of the same scene; Pictorial cues (7 months) because they’re the same cues that artists use to convey depth in drawings and paintings. o The impact of motor­skill development: genetic instructions unfold in the context of a stimulating environment—and essential to this  plan are the infant’s own emerging motor skills. o Perceiving faces: newborns prefer (a) faces with normal features over faces in which features are scrambled; upright faces over inverted faces; attractive faces over unattractive faces. 3-month- olds prefer to look at faces from their own race but they can recognize faces from other races (and other species). In contrast, 6-month-olds often fail to recognize faces of individuals from other, unfamiliar races o Color vision: o We detect wavelength—and therefore color—with specialized  neurons called cones that are in the retina of the eye. Some cones  are particularly sensitive to short­wavelength light (blues and  violets), others are sensitive to medium­wavelength light (greens  and yellows), and still others are sensitive to long­wavelength light (reds and oranges). o By 4 months, infants’ color perception seems similar to that of  adults; New born only see black and white o Vision problems: Hard to be noticed, cause infants don’t reading and cannot self-report; can be discover in school  Hearing - A fetus can hear at 7 or 8 months after conception - Auditory threshold refers to the quietest sound that a person can hear. - Prenatal Environment o Baby prefers mom’s voice, filtrating version. Don’t recognize words, and be familiar with rhythm and tempo o Baby learned and remembered what they heard before birth - Auditory Learning o Preferential sucking paradigm: mom read the Cat in the Hat during conception and baby sucks quickly while listening again, prefer the familiar story. - Hearing Impairment o Cannot hear impact language o Some infants are born with limited hearing. Others are born deaf.  (Exact figures are hard to determine because young infants’  hearing is rarely tested precisely.) o Heredity is the leading cause of hearing impairment in newborns.  After birth, the leading cause is meningitis, an inflammation of the  membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.  Taste - Infants are also sensitive to changes in the taste of breast milk that reflect a mother’s diet. - Before birth, baby tastes amniotic fluid, which varies depends on mom’s diet, taste similar to breast milk - Baby show the preference of flavors which mom’s (eating); if mom eat something unhealthy, that impact babies and lead babies’ bad habits - Baby dislike sour and bitter, because they could be poisonous - Formulate food restrict baby’s range of flavors - Baby’s taste locked after 5-6 months  Smell: - They respond positively to pleasant smells and negatively to unpleasant  smells - Young babies can also recognize familiar odors. Newborns look in the  direction of a pad that is saturated with their own amniotic fluid. They also turn toward a pad saturated with the odor of their mother’s breast milk or  her perfume - Sense of smell is better in humid environment than dry  Touch - Because the visual sense is not good, baby explores the world by putting things in mouth to feel and know them (before 6 months) - Except visual function, other functions develop very well before birth. - Result in reflexes - Only one part doesn’t have sensitivity of touch, which is skull  Perceptual Narrowing: baby brain takes part in learning faces and languages; infants are better at recognizing faces and distinguishing speeches than adults - Speech Sounds: as child being older, brain gonna specialized the language in the environment - Face Recognition - Specialization: methodology: habituation, test baby’s reaction  Integrating sensory information - Cross­modal perception is actually easier for infants, because in infancy  regions in the brain devoted to sensory processing are not yet specialized.  For example, some regions in an adult’s brain respond only to visual  stimuli; those same regions in an infant’s brain respond to visual and  auditory input - Spotlight on Theories: The theory of intersensory redundancy says that  infants learn best when information is simultaneously presented to  multiple senses.  Perceptual Constancies: Early on, infants master size constancy, the realization that an object’s actual size remains the same despite changes in the size of its retinal image.  Size is just one of several perceptual constancies. Others are brightness and color constancy as well as shape constancy. All these constancies are achieved, at least in rudimentary form, by 4 months  Attention: o Attention refers to processes that allow people to control input from the  environment and regulate behavior. o three networks of attentional processes, each with unique functions and  neural circuitry:  The orienting network is associated with selection—it determines  which stimuli will be processed further and which will be ignored. (well developed in infancy)  The executive network is responsible for monitoring thoughts,  feelings, and responses as well as resolving conflicts that may  occur. (slowest to develop) o Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)  Cause: genes and environment   Treatment: drugs: Ritalin; intervention programs   medication plus psychosocial treatment was somewhat more  effective than medication alone  ADHD is perhaps better considered a chronic condition, like  diabetes or asthma, one that requires ongoing monitoring and  treatment  Motor development: - Infants must learn the fine­motor skills associated with grasping, holding,  and manipulating objects. - Locomotion: to move about in the world. - Youngsters at this age are called toddlers, after the toddling manner of  early walking - Dynamic systems theory, development involves many distinct skills that  are organized and reorganized over time to meet the demands of specific  tasks. E.g.: walking includes maintaining balance, moving limbs,  perceiving the environment, and having a reason to move. - Walking process: Posture and Balance—Stepping­­Environmental Cues— Coordinating Skills (12 months baby can walk alone) - Culture influence: In Europe and North America, most infants typically  walk alone near 12months. African infants learn earlier, and Chinese  infants learn later.  Fine­Motor Skills - Reaching and grasping: at about 4 months, infants can reach for objects;  until 7 or 8 months do most infants use their thumbs to hold objects o Study—adjusting grasps to objects: 10­month­ olds adjust the  number of fingers correctly when pencils varied only in size, not in orientation. Thus, the problem for 10­month­olds is not adjusting  the number of fingers per se but one of adjusting their hands on  multiple dimensions simultaneously as they grasp objects. o The principle of dynamic systems theory: Complex acts involve  many component movements. Each must be performed correctly  and in the proper sequence. - Handedness:  o By the 12 months, most youngsters are emergent right­handers. o Handedness is influenced by both heredity and environment.  Physical fitness: participating in sports Theories of Cognitive Development  Learning Theories - Classical Conditioning o Pavlov’s dogs o Little Albert (Watson) - Operant Conditioning o Reinforcement: an environmental response that increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated   Positi    reinforcement  Negative reinforcement: a response or behavior is  strengthened by removing or avoiding a negative outcome or  aversive stimulus. o Punishment: an environmental response that decreases the likelihood  that a behavior will be repeated - Observational Learning (a.k.a. Social Learning) o Example: video o Bobo experiment (Bandura)  Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development - Assimilation occurs when new experiences are readily incorporated into a  child’s existing theories  - Accommodation occurs when a child’s theories are modified based on  experience - When disequilibrium occurs, children reorganize their theories to return to a  state of equilibrium, a process that Piaget called equilibration. Current but  now­outmoded ways of thinking are replaced by a qualitatively different,  more advanced theory. - Stages of cognitive development:  - Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years) o Infants’ perceptual and motor skills improve quickly o A period during which the infant progresses from simple reflex  actions to symbolic processing. o The infant progresses from reflexive responding to actively exploring  the world, understanding objects, and using symbols. o Cognitive Advances   Objec    permanence  4­8 months­­ out of sight, out of existence  At about 8 months, infants search for an object that an  experimenter has covered with a cloth. But “ A not B  error”.  Infants do not have full understanding of object  permanence until about 18 months of age.  Understanding that objects exist independently is  called object permanence.  Use of symbols  By 18 months, most infants have begun to talk and  gesture, evidence of the emerging capacity to use  symbols.  Once infants can use symbols, they begin to anticipate  the consequences of actions mentally instead of having to perform them.  Mental problem solving  Toy bricks: compare the shape of bricks and holes and  match them, fit bricks into holes  - Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years) o Cognitive Advances  Use of symbols: the child’s use of symbols to represent  objects and events. o Cognitive Limitations  Egocentrism: refers to young children’s difficulty in seeing  the world from another’s viewpoint.  Egocentrism leads preoperational youngsters to  attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others.  Preoperational children sometimes credit inanimate  objects with life and lifelike properties, a phenomenon  known as animism  Three mountain tests  Two sides paper (dog and cat on each side): some  children can know what the person see in the other  side. Acquires this skill before complicated  dimensional mountain test.  Conservation—centration   Conservation of liquids: center on the level of the juice in glass  Conservation of number  Conservation of mass  Conservation of length - Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 11 years) o Children first use mental operations to solve problems and to reason. o Mental operations are strategies and rules that make thinking more  systematic and more powerful o Cognitive Advances  Logical thought: math; category; spatial relations  Reduced egocentrism: reversed thinking  Conservation  Identity  Decentered thinking: could think multiple things   Dynamic transformation  Reversibility: Another important property of mental  operations is that they can be reversed. Each operation  has an inverse that can “undo” or reverse the effect of  an operation. o Cognitive Limitations  Abstract and hypothetical thought - Formal Operational Stage (11years through adulthood) o Cognitive Advances  Abstract thought  Hypothetical thought: use hypothetical reasoning to probe the  implications of fundamental change in physical and biological laws. Creating hypothesis; do what­if thinking  Deductive reasoning: the ability to draw appropriate  conclusion from premises; logical conclusion  o Cognitive Limitations  Adolescent egocentrism: focus on self  Imaginary audience: teen think they’re on stage,  everyone is watching them (their dress, looking etc.)  Personal fable: teen believe their thoughts and feeling  is unique and think no one can understand them  Illusion of invincibility o Universality of Formal Operational Thought: FOT is not universal,  depends on children’s schooling age. If children don’t go to school,  shows low FOT o Assessing Formal Operational Thought—used for testing FOT                                                  Pendulum task: if know control variables and test each condition one by one, shows FOT  (weight, length, height)  Combination of chemicals task: chemical test o Impossible events: children shows surprised (about 3 months) - - - - - - - - - - Contributions from Piaget o The study of cognitive development itself o A new view of children. Piaget emphasized constructivism, the view  that children are active participants in their own development who  systematically construct ever­more sophisticated understandings of  their worlds.  o Counterintuitive discoveries: “A not B” error; fail to conservation  task ect. - Weaknesses of Piaget’s theory: o Piaget’s theory underestimates cognitive competence in infants and  young children and overestimates cognitive competence in  adolescents.  o Piaget’s theory is vague concerning mechanisms of change.  o Piaget’s stage model does not account for variability in children’s  performance. o Piaget’s theory undervalues the influence of the sociocultural  environment on cognitive development.  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural View of Cognitive Development - According to the sociocultural perspective, children are products of their  culture: Children’s cognitive development is not only brought about by social interaction, it is inseparable from the cultural contexts in which children live. - Influence of social interaction and culture o Culture often defines which cognitive activities are valued o Culture provides tools that shape the way children think o Higher­level cultural practices help children to organize their  knowledge and communicate it to others. - For Vygotsky and other sociocultural theorists, the social nature of cognitive  development is captured in the concept of intersubjectivity, which refers to  mutual, shared understanding among participants in an activity. - Such interactions typify guided participation, in which cognitive growth  results from children’s involvement in structured activities with others who  are more skilled than they - Zone of proximal development: the distance between a child’s actual  developmental level and a higher level of potential development with adult  guidance o The difference between what Angela’s son can do with assistance and what he can do alone defines the zone of proximal development. o Collaborators help children perform effectively by providing  structure, hints, and reminders. o The idea of a zone of proximal development follows naturally from  Vygotsky’s basic premise that cognition develops first in a social  setting and only gradually comes under the child’s independent  control. - Scaffolding:  teaching children by providing instruction and support that is  tailored to the individual child’s needs o Early in learning a new task, when a child knows little, teachers such  as the one in the photo provide a lot of direct instruction. But, as the  child begins to catch on to the task, the teacher provides less  instruction and only occasional reminders o Evidently, parents worldwide try to simplify learning tasks for their  children, but the methods they use to scaffold learning vary across  cultures. o Like building house  o Children learning: from easy to difficult; step by step o Example: children do digital puzzle; the difficulty of puzzle should  match the age; - Source of behavior regulation and instruction o Speech from others: External; instruction from teachers, parents..ect o  Private    speech: children told to themselves, speak aloud; behavior  regulation; This behavior demonstrates private speech, comments not  directed to others but intended to help children regulate their own  behavior. Vygotsky viewed private speech as an intermediate step  toward self­regulation of cognitive skills o Inner speech: have conversation in your head, don’t speak out  Memory:  Information­Processing Model of Memory: conceptual; like a computer  - Sensory memory: information captured by your senses: see, smell, hear but  does not stay in brain; first step; short and not get into brain analysis; most  info is not related to life. - Working memory: the information and cognitive processes currently active in  your memory system; something grasping your attention are get into the  working memory; or something are activated from long term memory o Limited capacity: about 7 items; 30 seconds decay; active memory - Long­term memory: all the information stored in your memory system o Unlimited capacity; once memory formed it stay permanently;   - Central executive: manages the memory system - Why can’t we remember? o Encoding: transfer sensory memory into working memory; something  we don’t remember, cause we never make it into long­term memory o Storage: transfer working memory into long­term memory; encoded  o Accessing: info in the long­term memory; you don’t know you knew it o Retrieval: has long­term memory; cannot transfer long­term memory  to working memory; activated issue: memory cannot be activated; but  sometimes cannot get it, like “ I know I knew it!”  Memory Retrieval - Recognition: Recognition:  the process of selecting the familiar from the  unfamiliar  – Habituation means having recognition memory  - Such as newborn’s  preference; babies  born with  recognition memory - - - - - - - - - Recognition test: show several cards, ask have you seen them before?  - Recall: Recalling a stimulus from memory­­­cued recall o Pulling out memory on you own  o Hard to know whether Newborn have recall; evidences can show 8 months baby has recall, cause they can do gesture  o Cued recall: recall memory with hints, 2 month baby can do that; elder  baby can do better; cued recall is easier than full recall  o Study: mobot is tied with baby’s feet (2months remember after 2days;  4months after a week)                 Recognition—cued recall—recall (increasing difficulty)  Development of Memory - Memory is at peak on 20 years old - Working Memory Capacity: the memory you are working actively; elder, better;  digital span test: elder children did better (about 7 items); long­term is infinite,  regardless age - Processing Speed: o Synapses pruning, brain works more efficiently o Myelination  Automatic processes: skilled that can be performed with little or no conscious  effort: o  C­A­T(children version, put more mental energy) vs CAT (adult version,  automatic processes) o elder, more experience; more automatic processes  - Strategies: different strategies works on different task; improve with ages o Rehearsal: repeating  o Organization: putting things into logical group o Elaboration: embellish info and make it easier to memorized; creative   Mnemonic devices: using first letter; rainbow song; best strategy,  but brain energy consuming  - Knowledge Base o Experts vs. novices o Knowledge increase, get older  o Adult are better on general memory than children  o Have knowledge on some area, help memory in that area  o But children are expert on chess and pokemon!! Automatic processing;  specific knowledge base - Infantile Amnesia:  o Infants have long­term; recognition memory, just failed to recall  o Children don’t remember about first 3 years of life o Reasons kids don’t remember: 1. Long time ago 2. Brain/info not  organized as adult, organization is not mature 3. The information stored in  different way: infants don’t organized info by words/ language, by  sensory; prelingual experiences may be difficult to retrieve from memory  TEXTBOOK: - Young babies remember events for days or even weeks at a time. - Rovee­Collier’s experiments show that three important features of memory exist  as early as 2 and 3 months of age: (1) an event from the past is remembered; (2)  over time, the event can no longer be recalled; and (3) a cue can serve to dredge  up a forgotten memory. - Brain development and memory: o The frontal cortex: structures responsible for retrieving stored memories  (develop second year) o Hippocampus: responsible for the initial storage of memory (develop  during first year) - Strategies for remembering: an action to promote remembering o Strategies:  Rehearsal: 7 and 8 years olds   Organization: structuring material to be remembered so that related information is placed together.  Elaboration: embellishing information to be remembered to make  it more memorable  External aids: they are more likely to make notes and to write  down information on calendars so that, like the girl in the photo,  they won’t forget future events o Metacognition:   selecting appropriate strategies to memory  Diagnosing memory problems accurately and monitoring the  effectiveness of memory strategies are two important elements of  metamemory, which refers to a child’s informal understanding of  memory. o Metacognitive knowledge: Such knowledge and awareness of cognitive  processes is called  Effective cognitive self­regulation—that is, skill at identifying  goals, selecting effective strategies, and monitoring accurately—is  a characteristic of successful students  Memory and Knowledge  o Still others denote a script, a memory structure used to describe the sequence  in which events occur. o the knowledge that young children have is organized; and this turns out to be a powerful aid to memory  recall memory if events fit script  distort memory if events does not match knowledge   Fuzzy trace theory: False memories—in this case “recognizing” a  word that was never presented—were less common in young children  than in older children and adults. This result is consistent with fuzzy  trace theory, in which these memory errors are a consequence of the  greater tendency for older children and adults to remember the gist of  what they’ve experienced. o although children’s growing knowledge usually helps them to remember,  sometimes it can interfere with accurate memory. o Autobiographical Memory: refers to people’s memory of the significant  events and experiences of their own lives.  The richness of parent–child conversations also helps to explain a  cultural difference in autobiographical memory.  An emergent sense of self also contributes to autobiographical  memory  Infantile amnesia refers to the inability to remember events from one’s early life.  personal experiences from our earliest years usually can’t be recalled,  because of inadequate language or inadequate sense of self o Eyewitness testimony   The questions could mislead children by implying that something  happened when actually it might not have.  Children’s memories can also be tainted simply by overhearing others —adults or peers—describe events.  “Child Development and Family Policy”  Problem solving: - Features of children’s and adolescents’ problem solving: o Young Children Sometimes Fail to Solve Problems Because They Don’t  Encode All the Important Information in a Problem  Encoding processes transform the information in a problem into a  mental representation;  As children grow, their encodings are more likely to be complete,  perhaps due to increases in the capacity of working memory and  because of greater knowledge of the world. o Young Children Sometimes Fail to Solve Problems Because They Don’t  Plan Ahead o Successful Problem Solving Typically Depends on Knowledge Specific to the Problem as Well as General Processes   An example is means­ends analysis, in which a person determines  the difference between the current and desired situations, then does something to reduce the difference. o Children and Adolescents Use a Variety of Strategies to Solve Problem  Sometimes children and adolescents solve problems using  heuristics—rules of thumb that do not guarantee a solution but are  useful in solving a range of problems. o Collaboration Often Enhances Children’s Problem Solving  Scientific Thinking  - Children and adolescents often have misconceptions of scientific phenomena that  interfere with their scientific thinking.  - Children and adolescents often devise experiments in which variables are  confounded—they are combined instead of evaluated independently—so that the  results are ambiguous.  - Children and adolescents often reach conclusions prematurely, basing them on  too little evidence.  - Children and adolescents often have difficulty using data to evaluate theories.  T/F Questions: - Neurogenesis is a major contributor to increases in brain weight after birth. F - Experiences influence brain development.  T - The brain of a 2­year­old is more plastic than the brain of an 8­year­old. T - Brain development is not complete until early adulthood.   T  (12 years old) - All of the senses function at birth. F - The visual cliff is used to determine visual acuity. F - Hearing impairment can be identified in newborns. F - Babies can learn before they are born. T - Giving a child a time out is an example of negative reinforcement. F -  Object permanence is a characteristic of the sensorimotor thought stage of  Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.  T -  Egocentrism in preschool aged children is an indicator of a social/emotional  delay.  F -  Only half of freshmen college students show formal operational thinking. T -  The zone of proximal development represents the level of task difficulty  associated with optimal learning. F -  Using Roy G. Biv to remember the colors of the rainbow is an example of  elaboration. T -  Long­term memory is permanent. T - Having something on the “tip­of­your­tongue” but not being able to remember  it demonstrates an access problem. F -  The memories of young adults are always better than children’s memories. F  The cell body of the neuron contains the biological machinery that keeps it alive.  Damage to the frontal cortex of the brain is most likely to affect which of the  following?  Planning   Damage to the frontal cortex of the brain is most likely to affect which of the  following? Sensory and motor functions   Which of the following is incorrect regarding brain specialization? Specialization  occurs late in development  Environmental stimulation is used to fine­tune brain wiring, a phenomenon known  Experience­expectant growth


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