PSY 230 Exam#3 notes
PSY 230 Exam#3 notes Psy230
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This 39 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eureka on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy230 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Christine Delgado in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Child and Adolescent Development in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Academic Skills School Readiness o Success in school begins before children ever enter a classroom: kindergarten o School readiness is more than academics - Physical Well-Being: good health; nutrition; sleep - Motor Development: fine-gross motor skills; psychical skills - Cognition and General Knowledge: general sense age appropriate - Language Development: age appropriate vocabulary; - Social and Emotional Development: cooperation; attention; self-regulation; independence - Approaches to Learning: be excited, curious and motivated in learning o Socio-economic factors are strongly related to school readiness. o Public Preschool: free education to children from kindergarten to 12 grades; from last decade, started to offer preschool, but limited o Head Start: started 1960; kids in the projects are from low- income families; preschool (birth-5)/ foods/ involved parents; benefits: kids in this program are more likely to finish high school; more likely to get jobs; less likely to be welfare; less likely to be criminal; require less money from society; o Abecedarian Project Reading o Reading milestones 4 grade is a transition from reading to learning, skillful reader; Culture differences: reading in English is more complicated, many exceptions; o Key Skills - Phonological awareness: The ability to distinguish the sounds in spoken words: is critical to be able to learn read; eg: dust is a one-syllable word that includes the initial consonant d, the vowel u, and the final consonant cluster st. Learning to read in English is particularly challenging because English is often inconsistent in the way that letters are pronounced Improving Children’s lives: Rhyme Is Sublime Because Sounds Abounds; The more parents read rhymes to their children, the greater their children’s phonological awareness, which makes learning to read much easier - Word decoding: recognize words; know characters; Word decoding is the process of identifying a unique pattern of letters. Beginning readers rely heavily on “sounding out” to recognize words, but even beginning readers retrieve some words from LTM - Fluency: read properly; has to do using tone of voice; know where to pause, emphasize and question mark - Comprehension: remember what you read; make sense or not; the process of extracting meaning from a sequence of words. Ways to improve comprehension: Children’s language skills improve, which allows them to understand words that they’ve decoded Children’s language skills improve, which allows them to understand words that they’ve decoded Working memory capacity increases, which means that older and better readers can store more of a sentence in memory as they try to identify the ideas it contains Children acquire more general knowledge of their physical, social, and psychological worlds, which allows them to understand more of what they read With experience, children better monitor their comprehension With experience, children use more appropriate reading strategies o Reading Instruction - Phonics: focus on teaching children the connection between letters and sounds; sounds words out o Children are far more likely to become successful readers when they’re taught letter–sound correspondences, and this is particularly true for children at risk for reading failure. - Whole-word/Whole-language: focus on having kids memorize words; see whole words; everything in classroom are labeled o Wholeword: children are taught to recognize whole words by sight. o Wholelanguage: learning to read is thought to occur naturally as a byproduct of immersing the child in language related activities, such as following print as a teacher reads aloud or writing their own stories, inventing spellings as necessary - Combine these three ways are best Writing o Form: eg: cursive—keyboards—voice o Content: first/second grades the content is very simple; cognition; put mental energy into how to make letters o Spelling: – Inventive spelling; using phonics to spell; sounds words loud and write words down; its good o Developmental improvements in children’s writing: - Greater Knowledge of and Access to Knowledge About Topics - Greater Understanding of How to Organize Writing Young writers often use a knowledgetelling strategy, writing down information on the topic as they retrieve it from memory During adolescence, writers begin to use a knowledge transforming strategy, deciding what information to include and how best to organize it for the point they wish to convey to their readers. - Greater Ease in Dealing with the Mechanical Requirements of Writing Young children often find writing difficult because of the problems they experience in printing letters properly, spelling words accurately, and using correct punctuation. Mathematics o Learning to Count (age 3) Onetoone principle: There must be one and only one number name for each object that is counted. Stableorder principle: Number names must be counted in the same order. Cardinality principle: The last number name differs from the previous ones in a counting sequence by denoting the number of objects. Children can apply all these principles consistently while counting incorrectly Learning to count beyond 10 is more complicated in English than in other languages. o Adding and Subtracting: After children begin to receive formal arithmetic instruction in first grade, addition problems are solved less frequently by counting aloud or by counting fingers. Instead, children add and subtract by counting mentally. Children are successful in math when they can draw on a solid base of math skills and knowledge as well as powerful cognitive skills (STM Working memory). Comparing U.S. Students with Students in Other Countries: U.S. high-school students have substantially lower scores than high-school students in several nations, due to cultural influences o Milestones o Strategies: - Using fingers or other objects—external - Speaking out loud to solve the problem—private speech - Mentally thinking through the problem—internal - Fact retrieval: memorize numbers are facts, 8 just come out in your head—memorization Factors Affecting Academic Success o Child Factors: Outer layer, less directed to get touch into the child; before preschool, all the skills, personality, intelligence come with them, all factors contribute to their future academic success o Microsystem: very immediate affect/ environmental influence to children; in school: class size, gender, resources; parents; classmates/teachers; o Mesosystem: interactions between all these things in the microsystem, not necessary to involved children directly; eg: parents involved in kid’s school, that influences kids/ teachers’ abilities to manage classrooms and other kids o Exosystem: PTA meeting/ school board meeting o Macrosystem: culture/ laws influences: where to born/ raised up o Chronosystem: time influences: now less teach cursive, cause technology development; Achievement test: change historically, now huge focus on the test; Current Controversies o Ability Grouping: the practice of using students’ ability level to determine which class children will be placed in Pro: the range of Zone of proximal development is smaller, ever class the range that teacher has to work with is smaller; teachers can focus on specific levels Con: higher level classes get better quality teachers; difficult for lower level kids to switch levels once get trapped (label); lower level kids can get benefits from interaction with higher level kids o High-Stakes Achievement Testing: standardized testing that has major consequences for children and schools; make sure children are not left far behind; child cannot get into the next grade, if fail the test; teachers’ promotion is related to the test. School funding and grades are based on the test. State funding also related to the test; The test help all kids get educational attention; put lot of pressure to kids; private schools don’t need to do achievement test Pro: increase accountable abilities of school; help schools to know their strength/ weakness Con: stress; textbooks changed to match the content of the achievement test and teachers need teach directly from the textbooks and focus on how to take multiple choices tests, which hinder creative teaching; draw away good teachers; cheating; reduce time for arts, P.E, social, etc. do not teach real life skills, cause the real life is not multiple choices PISA Rankings Rank with other countries in the world; math (well below average)/ science (below average)/ reading (close to average) o Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) Intelligence • What Is Intelligence? Abstract concept, hard to clear define o Theories of Intelligence - Psychometric Theories First theory of intelligence; g=general intelligence; earliest intelligent concept; definition: intelligence is the capacity/ability underlines all intellectual tasks; people who had higher level of general intelligence were better at wide spread tasks High general intelligence requires people’s performances is consistent in wide spread tasks; should be good at everything. Later add the blue dots that represent various specific intelligences; the idea is that, to some degree, intellectual skills all rely on this general intelligence; the abilities to do math and speak language rely on the general intelligence; all step in the general intelligence, but in different degrees If your general intelligence is low, but you still can acquire high spatial skill, as long as the skill steps in the general intelligence a little bit. Underline the general intelligence, but recognize the specific skills can vary across people • Psychometric theorists to propose hierarchical theories of intelligence that include both general and specific components - Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences There are all specific intelligences, not link to G (general intelligence); intelligences are really specific people’s profiles 9 specific intelligences * Linguistic: language/ words * Logical-mathematical: math/ ACT… * Spatial: perceive in different aspects/3D/ mental imagery * Musical: singing * Bodily-kinesthetic: physical ability/ athlete * Emotional intelligence: Interpersonal: be able to relate to other people; good at interact with other people Intrapersonal: regulate your own emotion; manage your self * Naturalistic: recognize things in environment; classify objects/people; learned classify birds * Existential: (new one) called spiritual intelligence; think about big picture/ spiritual things; eg. what’s the meaning of life - Sternberg’s Theory of Successful Intelligence Regard intelligences as abilities to achieve your goals Analytic ability: problem solving skills; analyzing problems and generating different solutions. Creative ability: think a new novel way, out side of the box; creativity; dealing flexibly with novel situations and problems. Practical ability: know your environment and be able to adapt it; knowing what solution or plan will actually work. • How is Intelligence Measured? o Intelligence Tests - Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (start age 2) First one intelligence test; original one Developed to identify intellectual disabilities in children; a quantity way to access children whether intellectual delay or not Develop later on 1900, has been revised and the fifth edition still be used today Children’s mental age or MA referred to the difficulty of the problems that they could solve correctly. Binet and Simon used MA to distinguish “bright” from “dull” children. A bright child would have the MA of an older child; for example, a 6yearold with an MA of 9 was considered bright. A dull child would have the MA of a younger child—first standardized test of intelligence The StanfordBinet: Terman described performance as an intelligence quotient, or IQ, which was simply the ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100: IQ = MA/CA * 100 A total IQ score is calculated, along with scores measuring five specific cognitive factors: fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visualspatial processing, and working memory. - Weschler Intelligence Scales Most commonly used; start age 3; the earliest intelligence test start after age 2, cause language development/ short attention span; there are tests for infants are correlated with intelligence, but some development mental assessment are not relevant; the info processing tests, do on after 6 moth age, correlate with intelligence WPPSI: Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (3-7 years) WISC: Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (6-16 years) WAIS: Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (16 years and older) o Weschler Intelligence Scales (4 main skills): verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. - Verbal Comprehension Has to do with vocabulary and general knowledge; test ask questions verbally and kids answer verbally Similarities In what ways are alike? A. ELBOW and KNEE B. 9 and 25 --square C. STEAM and FOG--water D. ENEMY and FRIEND--relationship - Perceptual Reasoning: visual/spatial Block design: see something and recreate it (child version) Matrix Reasoning (adult version) 4 - Working Memory Memory: Info processing; part of intelligence Digit span (verbal): subjects repeat numbers verbally after hearing the list; keep going until cannot do; reverse digit span: top memory working test (hold and manipulate info) – 3-4-1-8 – 1-8-6-9-3-2-5-6-2 Letter-number sequencing (adult version, verbal) Hear the item, then mental process that, and repeat back the number in numerical order followed by the letter in alphabetic order— working memory - Processing Speed How fast you can process info, time/coding test Coding: fill in these empty symbols, go in order left to right; people go more faster, if they keep keys in mind and don’t check when get into each new shape. o Infant Test: - Bayley Scales of Infant Development: Designed for use with 1 to 42montholds, the Bayley Scales consist of five scales: cognitive, language, motor, socialemotional, and adaptive behavior. - Stability of IQ Scores: scores from infant intelligence tests are not related to IQ scores obtained later in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood; Reasons: - Infant tests measure different abilities than tests administered to children and adolescents: Infant tests emphasize sensorimotor skills more than cognitive processes such as language, thinking, and problem solving. o Intelligence Quotient (IQ) - Distribution of IQ Scores All tests start easy and build harder; there are age norms; each age has each test; bell curve; some kids suffering metal illness are not included in the range; average changes with time, kids are smarter and smarter, and keep the norm in the middle of the distribution Average scores are 100—norm; 85-115 in average; Children can be gifted in various domains, do not have to gain above 130 IQ test to be defined as gifted • What Does Intelligence Predict? o Academic Performance: good teachers and resources help built intelligence; high intelligence help to do well in school —influence each other; o Occupational Status and Performance: intelligence predicts occupational status o Health: intelligence predict health; better intelligence and better health; because have the knowledge and resources to be able to keep health; correlation o Intelligence scores even predict longevity: Individuals with greater IQ scores tend to live longer o Improving Predictions with Dynamic Testing: Dynamic assessment measures a child’s learning potential by having the child learn something new in the presence of the examiner and with the examiner’s help. First, the goal of traditional testing is to predict children’s performance relative to their peers; the goal of dynamic assessment is diagnosis, revealing a child’s strengths and weaknesses as a learner. Second, traditional testing follows a standardized format that focuses on a child’s unaided performance; dynamic assessment is interactive and, drawing on Vygotsky’s ideas of the zone of proximal development and scaffolding, focuses on the kind of guidance and feedback that children need to succeed. Third, traditional testing focuses on the child’s average performance across a variety of items; dynamic assessment focuses on a child’s peak performance—identifying the circumstances where children learn best. • What Factors Influence Intelligence o Genes: the coefficient for genes related to intelligence is 0.5; half is due to genes, half is due to environment o Environment - Socio-economic status (SES): the biggest thing is related intelligence; affluence/education/jobs/ social status; different types of interaction with kids: language quality in the affluent family is much better; resources; health/ nutrition; evaluate education in different way (affluent kids more likely think education is valuable) - Culture: IQ test, somehow, has culture bias; general intelligence test are bias towards middle/up classes, urban/ white cultures; The specific skills and goals that are important to U.S. conceptions of successful intelligence and that are assessed on many intelligence tests are less valued in these other cultures and so are not cultivated in the young. Cultural Bias Wallaby is to animal so cigarette is to___ We eat food and we ___ water. A “gas head” is a person who has a___ a. fast-moving car b. stable of “lace” c. “process” d. habit of stealing cars e. long jail record for arson Culture-fair Intelligence Tests o Try to reduce culture bias and assessment o However, these revised intelligence tests doesn’t not predict academic performance and occupational status as good as the standard traditional one; because the real world and cultures are biased o In this case, assess children and put them to the appropriate grade, not so much for prediction, just see intelligent level, these culture-fair intelligence tests are beneficial o Prediction—traditional intelligence test; intelligence—culture-fair intelligence test - Children tend to have greater IQ scores when the family environment is intellectually stimulating Child development and family policy: providing children with a Head Start for socioeconomic analyses show that, in the long term, these programs more than pay for themselves in the form of increased earnings (and tax revenues) for participating children and lowered costs associated with the criminal justice system Highquality Head Start programs are effective: Graduates of such programs are less likely to repeat a grade in school and are more likely to graduate from high school. Programs like the Abecedarian Project show that the repetitive cycle of school failure and education can be broken. In the process, they show that intelligence is fostered by a stimulating and responsive environment. - Impact of Ethnicity and socioeconomic Status The problem of bias led to the development of culture fair intelligence tests, which include test items based on experiences common to many cultures. This selffulfilling prophecy, in which knowledge of stereotypes leads to anxiety and reduced performance consistent with the original stereotype, is called stereotype threat. Applied to intelligence, the argument is that African American children experience stereotype threat when they take intelligence tests, and this contributes to their lower scores Research: Making tests less threatening: it might be a useful stereotype threatmanagement intervention - Testtaking styles: the child’s culture encourages children to solve problems in collaboration with others and discourages them from excelling as individuals. - Interpreting Test scores: They predict success in a school environment, which usually espouses middleclass values Special Children, Special Needs: Gifted Children: • Traditional definitions of giftedness emphasized test scores (greater 130); modern definitions emphasize exceptional talent in a variety of areas, beginning with academic areas but also including the arts and sports. • Characteristics: 1. Their ability is substantially above average; being smart is necessary but not sufficient for being gifted. 2. Gifted children are passionate about their subject and have a powerful desire to master it. 3. Gifted children are creative in their thinking, coming up with novel thoughts and actions. 4. Exceptional talent must be nurtured. Without encouragement and support from parents and stimulating and challenging mentors, a youngster’s talents will wither. Children with disability: • Children with intellectual disability: Down syndrome is an example of a condition that leads to intellectual disability, which refers to substantial limitations in intellectual ability as well as problems in adapting to an environment, with both emerging before 18 years of age; Limited intellectual skill is often defined as a score of 70 or less on an intelligence test such as the StanfordBinet. • Children with learning disability: (a) have difficulty mastering an academic subject, (b) have normal intelligence, and (c) are not suffering from other conditions that could explain poor performance, such as sensory impairment or inadequate instruction. o developmental dyslexia; difficulties in understanding words that have been read successfully, which is called impaired reading comprehension; and, finally, difficulties in mathematics, which is termed mathematical learning disability or developmental dyscalculia. Youngsters with reading disability often struggle to distinguish different letter sounds o Children with developmental dyslexia typically benefit from two kinds of instruction: training in phonological awareness along with explicit instruction on the connections between letters and their sounds. o Children with impaired reading comprehension have no trouble reading individual words, but they understand far less of what they read. o Spotlight on theories: children with impaired reading comprehension have intact phonological skills but limited knowledge of word meanings and grammar. In other words, impaired reading comprehension is really less about problems with reading per se and more about impaired language. When children have limited vocabulary and gaps in their knowledge of grammar, they comprehend less of what they hear and read. o Mathematical disability: 2 possibilities: 1. Approximate number system provides less precise estimates of quantities for children 2. impaired in counting and retrieving arithmetic facts from memory Communication • Nonverbal Communication o Forms of Nonverbal Communication: to do before being able to use words; start around 6 months age o Communicative Functions - Show/Give/Reject/Request/Share • Prelinguistic Vocalizations (sounds baby make to communicate, not verbal); to build to be able to use language o Crying: first communication; evolution; biologically stimulus people’s attention; baby can cry on purpose to manipulate their parents when they ‘re around 6 months, they have cognitive capacity o Immature Vocalizations (birth-3 months): baby make a lot of really immature sounds; don’t control o Vocal Play (3-8 months): start to work out how vocal system works; work vocal system in a different way; play with pitch, clicks, fun sounds o True Babbling (5-10 months): put consonant and vowel together to make a syllable; eg “dadadada”, not a true word and no definition, o Jargon Babbling (9-18 months): long string of speech, but not words; doesn’t make sense; demonstrate they understand the tone and pattern of conversation without using words • Areas of Language o Phonology: sounds (in English 26 letters, 45 sounds) - Phonology: the study of the sounds of a language (i.e. phonemes): o Phonology refers to the sounds of a language. About 200 different sounds are used in all known spoken languages; all the different words in English are constructed from about 45 of them. - Order of production of speech sounds: master means they can use it correctly and consistently regardless the place of the words; children before age 8 make a lot of mistakes of words they are saying, because they haven’t mastered all the speech sounds yet; eg, if an age 8 child cannot say t or d… that’s development inappropriately; vowel sounds are easy to learn, children get them around age 2; high frequency sounds v, s, z are hard to master; master all consonant sounds until age 8 - Common mistakes in pronunciation (we shouldn’t alarm to them unless this lasts too long) Deletion: deleting the final consonant of a word; eg. dofor dog; da for dad Repetition: repeating sounds to create a word; eg, instead of bottle, say bobo Simplification: simplifying a consonant cluster; simplify bread to bed; three to tree; trickiest one is s, p. spider man to ider-man Reorganization: reordering the consonants in a word o Semantics: words; build up vocabulary - Semantics the study of the meaning of words and the acquisition of vocabulary; Semantics denotes the study of words and their meaning. - Types of vocabulary Receptive vocabulary: the words a child understands; * Always larger than words you can use (expressive vocabulary) * learn earlier; children learn words before they can say them; * 4-5 months children start to understand words; the first word baby understand is their names * Median is average; huge thnge thriability between children; 25 %-75 % are considered as normal * Even though kids cannot pronounce words correctly, as long as they know words’ meaning, they get the credit Expressive vocabulary: the words a child understands and says * First Words: 12 months age at First Word; 18 months age at 50 Words; start to make sentences; naming explosion happen * Naming Explosion: learn words rapidly, could be cognition and environment * Vocabulary Size * Naming Errors: Underextension: defining a word too narrowly; eg: kids only call their car car, but not generalize to the whole world’s cars Overextension: defining a word too broadly; eg, daddy to refer to any men - Vocabulary assessment Observation: hard to apply; time consuming Parent Report: write diaries * MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (MCDI): track list has columns of understands and understands + say (have to be standard words) Direct Assessment: started 2.5 years age, cause too young to cooperate; ask questions * Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT): test receptive vocabulary; don’t have to say, point * Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT): say what you see; and ask synonyms o Syntax: grammar: Syntax refers to rules that specify how words are combined to form sentences. For example, one simple rule specifies that a noun followed by a verb (e.g., dog barks, ball rolls) is a sentence - Syntax: the study of sentence structure and grammar Repressive syntax: children understand syntax before using it; evidence: when they do speak a sentence, they follow the grammar - Comprehension: preferential looking paradigm: at 15 months kids look the screen that matches the sentence that coming out - Sentences Initial Sentences: 18 months age; kids put twos randomly and follow the grammar rule and know which one goes first; 18monts-2years age use 2-3 words, which called telegraphic speech, because small vocabulary and low working memory Longer Sentences: Grammar Explosion; age 2; Be able to use following words: * Articles (a, an, the) * Conjunctions (and, but, or) * Regular plurals (-s, -es) * Possessive adjectives (your, her) * Pronouns (she, him, one) * Prepositions (in, on, over, around, under) * Negative sentences using ‘no’ or ‘not’ (“Susie no want milk!”; “That not my kitty.”) start to use but not in a correct way. * Question words (who, what, where, when, why) * Contractions (can’t, don’t, isn’t, doesn’t) * Compound sentences (“You goed and mommy goed, too.” - Grammatical Rules: age 4; preschool speech; vocabulary increase rapidly since age 3; brain is set up to experience-expect development; children pick up grammar naturally, from hearing, environment, not by specific teaching; 2 possible ways children lean grammar: 1. Memorize speech they heard 2. The learn the grammatical rules Learning Grammatical Rules– Novel Words (support 2): We don’t know the word wug, but we know the fill wugs in the blank, which means even though we never heard the word before, but still knew the rule —learn the grammatical rules Overregularization: using the rules of language in all contexts, even when inappropriate/ should be used; good sign/ common * “I seed two sheeps on the farm.” * “I goed on the choo-choo.” * “My toy car breaked.” * “Mommy sitted down.” o Pragmatics: function of language; use language to communicate with other people; be affective communicators; Pragmatics refers to the communicative functions of language and the rules that lead to effective communication. For example, rules for effective communication specify that speakers should be clear and their comments relevant to the topic of conversation. - Pragmatics: the study of the communicative functions of language - Turn-taking: started very early; egocentrism: preschool talk to each other, but not really interact with each other, just like have own individual conversation. That doesn’t happen to 5 age children - Referential communication Referential communication: using language to convey a message that the listener will understand; be an effective communicator * Know audience: tell info matches the audience * Monitor audience: see if audience follow you or not * Conversational repair: repeating or revising something that was said because it is believed that the listener did not understand the original statement; young kids’ ability to repair is limited, cause 1. They don’t have the alternative words, less vocabulary 2. Egocentrism - Slang: generation specific; most happen to adolescence and teenagers, cause they want to be independent and separate with adults • Perceiving speech: o The basic building blocks of language are phonemes, unique sounds that can be joined to create words. Phonemes include consonant sounds, such as the sound of t in toe and tap, along with vowel sounds, such as the sound of e in get and bed. Infants can distinguish most of these sounds, many of them by as early as 1 month after birth—habituation test o The Impact of Language Exposure: Because an infant might be exposed to any of the world’s languages, it would be adaptive for young infants to be able to perceive a wide range of phonemes. In fact, research shows that infants can distinguish phonemes that are not used in their native language. • Identifying words: o When 7 to 8montholds hear a word repeatedly in different sentences, later they pay more attention to this word than to words they haven’t heard previously. Evidently, 7 and 8montholds can listen to sentences and recognize the sound patterns that they hear repeatedly o Infants pay more attention to stressed syllables than unstressed syllables, o Another useful method is statistical. Infants notice syllables that go together frequently o Another way in which infants identify words is through their emerging knowledge of how sounds are used in their native language. o Another strategy that infants use is to rely on familiar function words, such as the articles a and the, to break up the speech stream. o When parents talk to babies, they often use infantdirected speech, which is slower and more varied in pitch and volume than adultdirected speech. • Child development and family policy o The usual recommendation for deaf children of hearing parents is to master spoken language, sometimes through methods that emphasize lip reading and speech therapy and sometimes with these methods along with signs and gestures. o the cochlear implant is a device that picks up speech sounds and converts them to electrical impulses that stimulate nerve cells in the ear. o Cochlear implants also promote language acquisition in deaf children. o Cochlear implants are more successful with children who are younger and who have some residual hearing. The quality of the child’s language environment also contributes • First steps to speech o At 2 months, infants begin to produce vowellike sounds, such as “ooooooo” or “ahhhhhh,” a phenomenon known as cooing o After cooing comes babbling, speechlike sound that has no meaning. A typical 6monthold might say “dah” or “bah,” utterances that sound like a single syllable consisting of a consonant and a vowel.s o At roughly 8 to 11 months, babbling sounds more like real speech because infants (like Chelsea in the vignette) stress some syllables and vary the pitch of their speech o This pattern of rising or falling pitch is known as intonation. Older babies’ babbling reflects these patterns (culture differences) 9.2 Learning the meanings of words • At about their first birthday, most youngsters say their first words. In many languages, those words are similar (Nelson, 1973; Tardif et al., 2008) and include terms for mother and father, and greetings (Hi, byebye), as well as foods and toys (juice, ball). By age 2, most youngsters have a vocabulary of a few hundred words, and by age 6, a typical child’s vocabulary includes more than 10,000 words (Bloom, 2000). • Understanding words as symbols o As a 9monthold, “baybay” was simply an interesting set of sounds that had no special meaning to her. As a 13monthold, “baybay” was her way of saying “baby.” o Babies begin to gesture at about the same time that they say their first words; both accomplishments show that infants are mastering symbols. • Fast Mapping meanings to words o at about 18 months, many children experience a naming explosion during which they learn new words— particularly names of objects—much more rapidly than before. o Children’s ability to connect new words to their meanings so rapidly that they cannot be considering all possible meanings for the new word is termed fast mapping o Factors to contribute to rapid word learning: Joint attention Constrains on word names Sentence cues Cognitive factors Attentional processes: Spotlight on theories: a shapebias theory of word learning: once toddlers showed a shape bias —that is, they realized that a name applies to objects that have the same shape but not to objects of the same color or made of the same material—they used this knowledge to learn new words faster. This result supports Smith’s theory and the general idea that word learning may not require specialized mechanisms. o Developmental change in word learning Before 18 months, infants learn words relatively slowly—often just one new word each day. At this age, children rely heavily on simple attentional processes (e.g., the shape bias) to learn new words. But by 24 months, most children are learning many new words daily. At any age, infants and toddlers rely on a mixture of wordlearning tools, but with age they gradually move away from attentional cues and toward language and social cues. o Naming Errors: A common mistake is underextension, defining a word too narrowly. Between 1 and 3 years, children sometimes make the opposite error, overextension, defining a word too broadly. • Individual Difference in world learning: o One is phonological memory, the ability to remember speech sounds briefly. Children who have difficulty remembering speech sounds accurately find word learning particularly challenging, which is not surprising because word learning involves associating meaning with an unfamiliar sequence of speech sounds. o the single most important factor in growth of vocabulary is the child’s language environment. Children have larger vocabularies when they are exposed to a lot of highquality language. languageprocessing efficiency links a languagerich environment with larger vocabularies. o Word learning styles: Some children have a referential style: their vocabularies consist mainly of words that name objects, persons, or actions. Other children have an expressive style: their vocabularies include some names but also many social phrases that are used like a single word, such as “go away,” “what’d you want?” and “I want it.” • Encouraging word Learning: o Questioning forces children to identify meanings of new words and practice saying them. o Children learn words when exposed to a parent’s advanced vocabulary, particularly in the context of instructive and helpful interactions o Impact of video: Most of the evidence suggests that before 18 months of age, infant oriented videos (e.g., Baby Einstein, Brainy Baby) are not effective in promoting infants’ word learning Most of the evidence suggests that before 18 months of age, infant oriented videos (e.g., Baby Einstein, Brainy Baby) are not effective in promoting infants’ word learning o Cultural influences: bilingual immigrant children’s test scores had more to do with their poverty and unfamiliarity with a new culture than with their bilingualism. Bilingual children learn language nearly as rapidly as monolingual children and often have more sophisticated understanding of the underlying symbolic nature of language. • Beyond words: other symbols: o 9montholds often try to grasp the toy in the photo, much as they would grasp the real object. By 18 months, toddlers rarely do this, indicating that toddlers understand that photos are representations of objects, not the objects themselves o A scale model is another kind of symbolic representation. A scale model of the solar system helps students to understand the relative distances of planets from the sun; o If young children watch an adult hide a toy in a fullsize room, then try to find the toy in a scale model of the room that contains all the principal features of the fullscale room (e.g., carpet, window, furniture), 3year olds find the hidden toy readily but 21∕2yearolds do not—young children are drawn to the model as a real object and therefore find it hard to think about the model as a symbol of the fullsize room. o In a study that examined children’s understanding of scale models as symbols, Judy DeLoache and her colleagues convinced 2.5yearolds that this oscilloscope could shrink the doll and other objects. 9.3 Speaking in sentence • From TwoWord Speech to Complex Sentences o At about 1.5 years, children begin to combine individual words to create two word sentences, like more juice, gimme cookie, truck go, my truck, Mommy go, Daddy bike. Researchers call this kind of talk telegraphic speech because, like telegrams of days gone by, it consists of only words directly relevant to meaning. o Beyond Telegraphic Speech (beginning at about age 23); Children’s longer sentences are filled with grammatical morphemes, words or endings of words (such as ing, ed, or s) that make a sentence grammatical. They learn general rules about grammatical morphemes; applying the general rule can lead to creative communication. As a 3year old, my daughter would say, “unvelcro it,” meaning detach the Velcro. o Additional evidence that children master grammar by learning rules comes from preschoolers’ overregularization, applying rules to words that are exceptions to the rule. - The 2.5yearold in the moduleopening vignette, many youngsters merely attach the wh word to the beginning of a sentence without changing the rest of the sentence: What he eating? What we see? But by 3 or 3.5 years, youngsters insert the required auxiliary verb before the subject, creating What is he eating? or What will we see? • Mastering grammar o The behaviorist answer: all aspects of language—sounds, words, grammar, and communication—are learned through imitation and reinforcement. However, One problem is that most of children’s sentences are novel, which is difficult to explain in terms of simple imitation of adults’ speech. For example, when young children create questions by inserting a wh word at the beginning of a sentence (“What she doing?”), o The linguistic Answer: according to semantic bootstrapping theory, children are born knowing that nouns usually refer to people or objects and that verbs are actions; they use this knowledge to infer grammatical rules. Inborn mechanisms help children learn grammar: 1. Specific regions of the brain are known to be involved in language processing. Broca’s area—a region in the left frontal cortex that is necessary for combining words into meaningful sentences. By 2 years, specific regions of the left hemisphere are activated when sentences break simple grammatical rules, such as a noun appearing when a verb would be expected 2. Only humans learn grammar readily: Chimpanzees can be taught very simple grammatical rules, but only after massive training that is unlike what toddlers and preschoolers experience. 3. There is a critical period for learning language: he period from birth to about 12 years is a critical period for acquiring language generally and mastering grammar particularly. 4. The development of grammar is tied to the development of vocabulary. o The cognitive answer: With this view, children learn language by searching for regularities across many examples that are stored in memory, not through an inborn grammarlearning device o The socialInteraction answer: According to the socialinteraction account of language learning, children are eager to master grammar because it allows them to communicate their wishes and needs more effectively. 9.4 Using language to communicate • Taking turns: Soon after 1-year-olds begin to speak, parents encourage their youngsters to participate in conversational turn- taking. When parents speak with young babies, they often alternate roles of speaker and listener, showing conversational turn-taking. • Speaking effectively: Even before children can speak, they make gestures to communicate with others. school-age children (and sometimes preschoolers) are well on their way to understanding the factors to consider in creating clear messages. From a surprisingly young age, children express themselves to others and adjust their conversations to fit listeners. • Listening well: By 4 years of age, children sometimes realize that a message is vague or confusing, but they often don’t ask speakers to clarify their intent. Instead, young listeners often assume that they know what the speaker had in mind; By the age of 7 or 8 years, children can be skeptical listeners—taking what a speaker says with a grain of salt • Temperament • Psychodynamic Theories o Sigmund Freud: his child development is based on adults o Erik Erikson: Psychosocial Stages of Development; high in the end or in the middle continues between two sides; build personalities, basically, carry forward on one side when time goes by. - Basic trust vs. mistrust (birth-1 year): how baby trust other people; see by basic interaction with other people - Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1-3 years): babies want to do things by themselves—autonomy - Initiative vs. guilt (3-6 years): set goals for themselves, try new things—initiative; parents help children set up reasonable appropriate goals; guilt/ shame and doubt: the goals for children is not developmental appropriate, too difficult; or parents don’t allow children do by themselves, overprotection - Industry vs. inferiority (6-12 years): industry: kids are able to meet the demands of culture they’re in (eg: reading/writing/math or hunting/fishing) - Identity vs. role confusion (13-20 years): teen develop sense of identity; figure out who you are - Intimacy vs. isolation (21-40 years): if can form a strong and bonding intimated relationship (friendship or romantic) - Generativity vs. stagnation (41-65 years): if be productive, or doing something valuable in family/jobs - Integrity vs. despair (66+ years): looking back on your life, see if feel good and satisfies the life • Temperament: similar to personality o Temperament: an individual’s relatively consistent style of reacting to environmental circumstances; natural consistent reaction o Temperament Dimensions Category 1: Thomas and Chess—nine temperamental dimensions: define temperament, interpret category 2 - Activity Level: infant’s typical level of motor activity; how active child is - Rhythmicity: biological rhythmicity: people with high rhythmic eat/ sleep/ pee, etc. at the same time every day; that doesn’t take into account, if parents reinforce their children into rhythmicity (feed every 4 hours); that’s body naturally does - Approach or Withdrawal: has to do with novelty; reaction: approach to new things or withdrawal - Adaptability: how is children able to adapt to new situation - Threshold of Responsiveness: how much take you get your emotional reactions: low threshold means react quickly (19min) - Intensity of Reaction: when you do react, how intensity of the reaction - Quality of Mood: positive good mood/ or negative down mood - Distractibility: how easily be distracted; focusing attention; avoid distraction - Attention Span and Persistence Category 2: Using all nine dimensions, Thomas and Chess identified three patterns of temperament. Not every child clearly fits one of three; have to stick to one of three, could change in different time - Easy: positive side: not extreme rhythmicity/ intensity; easygoing; who were usually happy and cheerful, tended to adjust well to new situations, and had regular routines for eating, sleeping, and toileting. High threshold - Difficult: hard to parent; try to help them find positive things and positive experiences; who tended to be unhappy, were irregular in their eating and sleeping, and often responded intensely to unfamiliar situations. - Slow-To-Warm-Up: act like easygoing children when the situation is confortable and familiar; However, when they do something new, they’re nervous, anxious, and need time to adapt; not highly emotional reactive Category 3: have to do with self-regulation/ behaviors and emotions regulation - Resilient: manage their behaviors and emotions very well; not highly emotional reaction - Overcontrolled: regular themselves too much; overregulation; very cautious; over consider about rules; afraid to answer questions/ be wrong; tends to be shy and anxious - Undercontrolled: children does not regulate enough, very emotional responsive; trend to be aggressive o Assessing Temperament - Behavioral Observation - Physiological Reaction: whole body react something new happened Heart rate Blood pressure Cortisol EEG - Questionnaires and Interviews Activity Level: Tends to run, rather than walk, from room to room Threshold of Responsiveness: low threshold, Gets mad when even mildly criticized Quality of Mood: Smiles and laughs during play with parents/ Usually has a serious expression, even during play Attention Span: When drawing or coloring in a book, shows strong concentration • Influences on Temperament o Genes o Environment o Gene X Environment Interactions: determine temperament - Influence on environment: children’s temperaments influence how people treat them - Choice of environment (niche-picking): pick environment fitting your personalities - Interpretation of experience: people with different temperaments evaluate and interpret situations differently o Goodness of fit: There is not perfect temperament and environment, what really matter is how them f