PSY230 EXAM#4 NOTES
PSY230 EXAM#4 NOTES Psy230
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eureka on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy230 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Christine Delgado in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Child and Adolescent Development in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
Attachment Theoretical Origins • Attachment: - an emotional tie formed between an infant and a care giver; - babies can form one or more attachments with different people; - first attachment towards their mothers • Emotional Deprivation: - Monkey-attachment experiment: - Conditions: 1.raised only with his mother, no peer 2.raised only with peer, no mother 3.rased with no peer and no mother - Mother situation: one wired mother providing food; one soft mother providing warm (monkey stays on this one all the time, except for hungry)—babies are not just interested in foods, need more than foods • Ethological Theory (Bowlby): : looking animal characteristics and behaviors to figure out why animal evolve like this. What were the evolutionary pressure to let them evolve like to act now. views development from an evolutionary perspective - Imprinting: the process by which animals learn the distinctive characteristics of their mothers; recognize their mothers and follow them all the time: e.g. ducks regard the first thing in front them move around is their mothers; * Evolutional importance: mother can protect baby; teach baby - Methodology: looking animals’ characteristics, behaviors, try to get why animals involved in the way they did; any evolutionary pressure? Why they have these behaviors? - Bowlby think the attachment apply for the evolutionary pressure; babies having strong bonding more likely to survive: bonding is important to survival - Connecting to caregivers is evolutional important!!! • John Bowlby (read in the book): done some emotional deprivation researches on orphan children on Word war II—naturalistic observation, lacking emotional connections… children raised in emotional neglectful don’t grow as tall, they’re shorter—impact psychologically and physically • Mary Ainsworth: Assessing Attachment Quality • Questionnaires and Interviews: done with teenagers and adults to know the attachment quality; explore what factors contribute the good quality relationship • Observation: done with young children – Strange Situation: to create moderate stress; when children are moderate stressful, we can see how well the natural attachment relationship between children and caregivers; observe how children play alone; react with the stranger; reunion - Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety are very naturally and common to toddlers (9-24months), so can create stressful environment; 9-24months, because, kids have to be mobile/moving; after 2years kids get used to separation, anxiety decrease - 8 episodes: 6 after mom leaving, baby be alone; key pieces is reunion: to see the extent of children rely on their mom and the attachment - Good quality attachment: when child stress out and mom is around, the child goes to mom and mom comfort the child, the child will be good - Attachment Classifications • Child Behaviors – Exploration of room Caregiver as a secure base: Secure base: when child wondering around the room, they check back in to mom; e.g. when child discover a new tool, he show it to mom; kids are secure attachment check back in and have secure base, other insecure kids are not – Behavior towards stranger – Behavior during separation from caregiver – Behavior during reunion with caregiver • Caregiver Behaviors: – Secure attachment: consistent reliable, responsive, sensitive to child, help and support child, – Avoidant attachment: is consistent insensitive, unreliable – Resistant attachment: is inconsistent, sometime sensitive, sometime not; conflict • Child Outcomes: – Secure attachment is very good: kids trust worthy and reliable, their adulthood relationship get benefits; – Avoidant attachment: rely on themselves, don’t need help and interact with people; relationship issue—no trust – Resistant attachment: keep clinging; power struggles with caregiver, doing thing try to get attention; not healthy Childe behavior: • Secure Attachment (B): secure base; for the stranger, it’s reasonable to be worry; for separation, might cry or not, anxious; for reunion: seek support/comfort or show positive reaction (smile to mom) • Insecure Attachment: it’s a issue/ children form the strategy – Avoidant attachment (A): tend to show consistent avoidance to mom/ don’t pay attention to mom; they do not avoid everybody, just target to avoid caregiver they attach to; baby cannot rely on this caregiver; they do explore the room, interest in toys, just don’t look back to mom, no secure base; most open to strangers; separation: may or may not cry, when they’re alone; reunion: avoidant obvious, ignore mom – Resistant attachment (C): intermittent reinforcement: babies assume mom will pay attention to them, so they keep cling to mom, and when mom give the attention, they will be warning and resentful, think mom should do it early, conflicted; don’t explore the room, keep clinging to mom; most negative to the stranger; separation: kids cry; reunion: keep crying and difficult to be suit/comfort – Disorganized (Disoriented) (D): new; kids come from abusive home or kids is disability and impact process of social information or kids never have the chance to form the attachment (no stable caregivers); in the room; baby is scared, don’t look at and walk backwards to mom; other insecure kids have strategy (avoid, clinging), but this disorganized kids don’t have strategy, sometimes go to the stranger and they wanna emotional support, but don’t know how to do; most are orphan Attachment and Later Development • Internal working model: cognitive representations of relationships that children construct from their interactions with others; How you think about the relationship in general, are other people reliable, trustworthy; the relationships in whole life help to shape the internal working model; the very first relationship affecting the model is attachment with caregivers, when in infants period; relationships shape you flexibly, e.g. the model could shift due to good relationship with friends, even having the insecure attachment with mom in the infant’s period; • What the person having secure attachment and positive internal working model will do, if she is in the emotional abusive relationship? She know it’s abnormal and will walk away • People in the insecure attachment relationship before will stay in the abusive relationship, cause it’s normal to them Parenting: Parenting styles Dimensions of Parenting (2 dimensions) - Warmth: high to low (continuous); * High warmth behaviors: supportive, encouraging, caring, prizing; * Low warmth behaviors: ignoring, criticizing - Control: high to low, anything in between * High control: setting/ enforcing rules, supervise/monitor kids follow the rule * Low control: don’t have a lot of rules, kids do whatever they want to do * Generally, high control is better than low control; but how you implements the control determine the good or bad control Rules help * Keep kids safe: safety belt, don’t play on the road; * Provide a sense of order: rules have to be consistent to work; consistent rules help kids understand what expect on them; give the sense of confident/ accomplishment; e.g. kids know the school rules and build sense of confident, when successful follow the rules * Children learn self control: internal: internalize the rules for life, know how manage their behaviors, make decisions, adapt real world (world have rules) by external rules since toddlers; * Prepare children for the real world Patterns of Parenting (generally, the order is best to worst, not always) Each dot represent parent; there is variability between each group; not a perfect system - Authoritative: best one; high warm and control; it’s effective cause the controls are put in the caring, rational, reasonable way; not overbearing; child could have voice and opinions - Authoritarian: high control, less warmth; parents are not neutral supportive, and tend to be in control, don’t negotiate with children and accept/ respect children’s opinions; much less democratic; they don’t explain to children, even the rules do not make sense to children; in extreme, more likely to be physical/ emotional abusive - Permissive: high warmth, low control; on the one hand, parents think kids should be kids, shouldn’t have the rule; allow kids do whatever they want; on the other hand, some parents know kids need rules, but not good at enforcing them, and cannot control kids - Uninvolved: low warmth, low control; worst; in extreme way, parents neglect kids; not supervise kids, no rules; reason: 1. Just the natural parenting style: don’t want to engage in, deal with kids 2. Could be permanent (who the parent is) and temporary (stress/healthy, circumstance issues) What if two parents have different styles? Positive parenting is dominant; it’s better both parents on the same page (all positive authoritative) or at least one of them is authoritative (not limited in parents, all caregivers) Child Outcomes - Authoritative: best outcome; get along very well with parents, especially during the teen, cause caregivers respect their children, good quality relationship between children and parents - Authoritarian: children do pretty well in school, more likely to have difficulty to initiate activity and make decisions by themselves (parents take control of what they should do); more like to be rebellious later age - Permissive: kids tend to be self-centered, aggressive, impulsive, lacking self-control, bossing and disrespectful - Uninvolved: Generally, pattern holds. Exception: 1. Self-reliance: authoritarian is lowest 2. Drug use (decided by control): authoritarian is lowest, permissive and uninvolved are high; parenting style is important to children’s outcome, but not the only thing influence the following averages (peers, media…) Discipline: Which discipline depends on 1. The strategy parents using enforce children 2. Child’s age 3. Location (public or at home) 4. Child’s temperament • Distraction and Redirection: mainly use on infants and toddlers, kids younger than 1.5 really don’t understand right and wrong, don’t have morality, cognitively do not develop; not necessary discipline, distraction is enough • Reinforcement: can use in any age (positive/negative) – Rewards: depends on temperament: some kids care, some are not – Praise • Punishment: doing something take away something children want to, discourage negative behaviors – Time out: put children some where, let them introspect; also patents have time to calm down; try to end time out with the conversation; 1 minute per year age: e.g. age 4, 4 minutes; most effective for age 5 children – Removing privileges: works at any ages (above 18months); take some things (tools, cell phone, TV) away; some things are not related to privileges – Physical punishment: spanking, other physical uncomfortable things; * Spanking is in great deal culturally, and controversial; now, most 75 % U.S. people think it is legitimate to spank kids, but some parents don’t allow to spank kids in school; 20-30years ago over 90% parents approve spanking; However, in some other countries, it’s illegal; * Researches on psychical punishment: you could find the legitimate research to back you up whatever your perspective of spanking is (support both sides); o Pro of physical punishment: 1. Psychical punishment is an effective discipline strategy, at least in short term, real change behaviors (not believe in long-term) 2. Also make other forms of discipline more effective, children know parents will spank, get previous warning; o Con of physical punishment: 1. Doesn’t work on long-term 2. Negative consequences: impact relationship, kids model aggressive behaviors and learn and apply the abusive relationship in the future 3. Psychical injury 4. Cognitive development: correlational having lower IQ * The most appropriate and common age of physical punishment is between age 2-6; too early to connect the punishment to their behaviors, never do it in anger!! • Strategies: – Set a good example – Set and enforce clear and consistent rules. – Create a safe environment with appropriate playthings – Notice and comment when children do something right – Help children see how their actions affect others: helping built empathy Play & Peer Relationships Play • Play is the work of the child.” (Piaget): lots of benefits happening, when kids are playing, lots of other animals play too; learn functional social in the society • Benefits of Play - Physical: physical healthy, fine motor skills, relieve stress - Cognitive: listen to rules, creativity, problem-solving, language in communication; logic - Social: learn how to deal with different kids; learn compromise; teamwork; sharing; trust; learn regular emotion • Unfortunately, children aren’t playing as much as they used to. Why is this? - Engage in technology: ipad, video games instead of getting outside - School cutting recess: researches support that recess improves academic learning (focusing), not just wasting time. Both parents work now, no one supervise kids, kids participate more activities - Safety: perception of kids don’t go to play, because it’s not safe to play; the country is safe than it used to be, our perception of how safe of the country is change, because, the internet/media, we are exposed to more bad news. • Structured Play: clear defined standard rule—not made by kids; e.g. basketball; P.E.; teaching the rules, social • Unstructured Play: play their own, set up their own rules; kids learn to work together and creative; Kids get more structured than unstructured play now • Cognitive Advances: play changes with ages/ cognitive development - Functional play (younger than age 2): pretend drive a car, call on cellphone, use actual object to resemble the object; keep this type of play and add more while getting older - Symbolic play: (started at age 2): use something are not resemble the object, just pretending/ imaging, DON’T have to be physical things - Sociodramatic play: (age 3): cognitively do it, imaginative and creative, play acting, make characters/roles; could be realistic or creative - Rule-bound play (age 7): board games; follow the rules; interested in collecting things - Teenagers and younger adulthood: keep ruled sports, be more social, shopping/ hanging out • Social Advances: older than age 1.5 start to show social play. • Parten’s Categories of Play - Nonsocial play: children younger than 1.5, tend to play on their own, even notice kids around them; - Parallel play: get engaged in similar activity, but not actually interact with other kids when they doing it; no talking - Associative play: children have individual goals, doing their own things, and interact with other kids when they doing that. Build their own house - Cooperative play: children share the goal, have the same goal; most socially event; build house together; 3-5 age, cognition develops rapidly. Peer Relationships: peers are in the same category as you, don’t necessary to know each other, may like or not each; friends—neutral liking • Friendships: kids like each other - Developmental Changes * Convenience: infants/toddlers (age 1-2), maintain the conceptualized friends convenience, not seek out the friends, assume friends are kids they play with, in the same place/time; relationship is broad, kids around * Interests (start age 3): maintain convenience, be more selective, play the same play, show in common * Personality (age 8): still convenience/interest, be much more selective, add similar personality: like each other * Trust (age 8): support and share them, trust each other * Intimacy (teenager): most selective, trust in deep level; start to leave parents, be independent; sense of identity • Peer Groups: in teen years; both development important; gradually be independent from parents, peers support each other and be the bridge of the transition; reliance on parents is complete from infants and then decline with age, and relying on friends gradually increase with age; arrive equivalence at middle school (7 grades); develop sense of autonomy - Cliques: (4-7 numbers) a small group of friends that interacts frequently, th * Started early as 4 grades, * Most common and strongest in middle school; single gender: all boys or girls; * Once in high school, cliques loose a little bit, mix gender, be in more than one cliques, multiple cliques; * Disappear after high school: teen become independent, don’t need the support such much - Crowds: a large peer group made up of individuals and cliques that share similar norms, interests, and values * Nerds, jerks… label group people, social defined, based on characteristics; they don’t need to know each other * Crowds help identify identities, have sense of who you are * Most common in high school, tend to dispend at the end of high school • Peer Conformity: the tendency to go along with the wishes of peers or to yield to peer-group pressures - Conformity: kind of negative * Especially in middle school, want to join in cliques; have a little independent from parents, but don’t want to be alone, need support; so tend to conform the wishes of peers * In high school, peer conformity decline, due to more independent; less reliant; varies among person to person; kids in authoritarian parenting are more likely to conform * Parents tend to stop kids join in bad cliques (drug abuse…). Actually, kids get drug abuse, mostly because of their curiosity not the cliques; peers do influence each other - Peer-group pressure: positive * Peers help and support each other to do good positive things: encourage studying, exercising, • Peer Acceptance: the extent to which a child is viewed by peers as a worthy or likeable companion - How children fit into the group of peers, how they be perceived by peers - Measuring Peer Acceptance: give peers a scare list to value; tell the 3 name like the most or least; +liking; -disliking * Average: most common single category; some+ some-, largest group * Neglected: few or no votes; not active; shy; people don’t pay attention on them; it’s negative, not get support from peers; can be temporary, can change, if parents noticed and place kids in different classroom/group. * Rejected: many- -, more stable, hard to change, big issue; 2 reasons: 1.doing something people dislike: aggressive; 2. Social awkward in a way bothering other kids * Popular: may++, friendly, outgoing, nice; not the same as “popular” kids who is social powerful, kind of mean * Controversial: many+ many-; kinds of “popular”, dramatic, social impact; powerful; TV shows like them Prosocial Behavior & Aggression Prosocial behavior is behavior that people like, cultural difference/determined, e.g. empathy, nice, cooperative Antisocial behavior is in a negative way—aggression/ cheating… Moral Development: understanding notion of right and wrong; value; influence behaviors - Piaget’s Theory: talk about more younger kids; moral growing bonds to cognitive development * Stage 1: Premoral (birth – 4 years): amoral; can know the rule, follow or not follow rules, but not understand rules in a moral way, no judgment on behaviors; recent research on moral tendency in infants/ preschool: in some level, shows sign in moral, but not sophisticated in judgment; * Stage 2: Moral realism (5 to 7 years): preoperational stage; kids make quick moral judgments solely based on rules; moral sense; only black and white (right and wrong), nothing in between; follow authority; Adults will take context and intention into account; Context: situation you’re in: speed up—emergency; Intention: on purpose or not * Stage 3: Moral relativism (8 years and older): transition from pre- operation to concrete operation; less ego-centric, can see other people’s sides help moral processing; decentered—can think multiple factors at the same time; not stick to the rule; negative aspect: kids think rules are flexible, and parents hard to control them * Stage 4 Role of society (12 years and older):overlap stage 3; formal operational stage; more abstract, higher level thoughts—how morality differs from societies and cultures. Spanking/ woman rights; awareness of culture impact - Kohlberg’s Theory: main theory of moral development * Heinz Example: the way to classify the stage—tell a story, ask questions In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2000, 10 times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: “No.” The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should Heinz have tried to steal the drug? Why or why not? On test, don’t need to distinguish stage#, know generally * Preconventional Level: childhood (up to 12, little adults some adolescent/kids); self-focused: focus on consequence of their behavior: based on rewards and punishment Stage 1: Obedience orientation: avoiding punishment: he shouldn’t steal drug, because he will get in jail Stage 2: Instrumental orientation: looking for rewards: he should steal drug, because his wife will be saved * Conventional Level: most teen and adults fit here; decision is broader and outside of yourself: Stage 3: Interpersonal norms: has to do what other people think about you if you do this; if he steal the drug, other people think he is a thief/bad husband Stage 4: Social systems morality: respect to the law, know the rule make society function well; he should not steal the drug, cause break the law * Postconventional Level: few adults, age 25; take personal beliefs into account; value and respect the rule/low, but … morally exception Stage 5: Social contract orientation: wife’s life is more important than law; how works with society Stage 6: Universal ethical principles: equality; justice; fairness; I have to make the decision based on personal beliefs; sometime, person’s belief doesn’t match the law; he cannot live without his wife * ￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼ Prosocial Behavior - Prosocial behavior: behaviors that benefit another person: regardless motive/ other purposes; only focus on results—beneficial behaviors - Altruism: prosocial behaviors that have no direct benefit to the individual: consider the motive is selfless, no other selfish purposes, just do something good; a type of prosocial behaviors - Influences on Prosocial Behavior: parents/peers/people: teach/give kids instructions; Children modeling prosocial behaviors; Relieve pain: doing something good can help get out of pain; Temperament: when shy children see someone need help, they desire to help, but don’t have courage do it; level of empathy; media - Culture Influence: two main orientation * Individualism: a cultural orientation based on the belief that people are independent of each other; focus on individuals/ competitive/ --U.S. western European * Collectivism: a cultural orientation based on the belief that people are interdependent members of social group; focusing on group/ cooperative/ not seek—Asian: more prosocial/ altruism behaviors Aggression: a type of antisocial behavior; lots of forms: physical, verbal, gesture… 2-3 age kids are most likely to be aggressive, because ego-centric and uncompleted development of morality, lacking of emotion/self regulation; undeveloped language skill—adults cannot communicate with kids effectively; overall, aggression decline with increasing ages - Types of Aggression (different reasons/motives behind the behaviors); * Instrumental aggression: aggressive acts done to acquire something; fighting for tools to get the thing; not limited in physical aggression * Hostile aggression: aggressive acts done to harm, intimidate, or harass someone; try to hurt someone physically/ emotionally * Reactive aggression: aggressive acts done in response to a frustrating event or another child’s behavior; anger and frustrate * Relational aggression: harming others through purposeful manipulation and damage to peer relationship; target and damage peers relationship; try to hurt people socially; e.g. spread rumor Instrumental/ Hostile: overt; acting out aggression, easy to observe; reactive/relational: subtle, hard to see/do research - Gender Differences: * Total amount of aggression between girls and boys are similar * Girls are more reactive/relational aggression—subtle type; boys are more instrumental/Hostile aggression—overt type * Relational aggression starts at preschool (3-5age); peak in middle school; overt tends to decrease with age; relational tends to increase with age up to the teen years - Stability: young high aggressive children tends keep aggressive in adulthood, may change the form of aggression (physical to verbal); low stay low; correlation with criminal conviction both in males and females - Bullying * 30% of children in the US are involved in bullying: in person bullying 13% bullies: 11% victims: 6% both bullies and victims: * Characteristics Bullies: strong emotionally and physically; not easy anger; low; empathy; controversial; “popular”; could be rejected due to aggression; HIGH self-esteem; control others Victims: weak emotionally and physically; easy to anger; low self-esteem; rejected due to awkward or to be neglected; no friends Bully/Victims: conflicts in home; emotional reactive; frustrated; implosive; hostile attribution error: tend to see the world is hostility; slash out * Consequences of Bullying: o Bullies tends to be bullies and aggressive when in adulthood—stability; most common in middle school; continuous aggressive in romantic relationship; or abusive relationship; higher level crime o Victims: anxiety; bad school performance; suicide * Cyberbullying: different in person bullying; don’t have to have very low level of empathy to do that; everyone can do and don’t have to be physical strong; anonymous; spread over the world quickly Media Meida Timeline: technology update so fast, researches cannot keep up - ￼1940s – Black and white TV - 1950s – Color TV - 1970s – Cable TV, HBO, Showtime, VHS, Betamax, Atari - 1980s – Personal computers, laptop computers, cell phones, MTV, Playstation - 1990s – Internet, satellite TV, high-definition TV, web TV - ￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼2000s – DVD, Blu-ray, Wii, Xbox, smart phones, social networking sites, digital TV, YouTube, iPhone - 2010s – iPad, 3D TV ￼￼￼￼￼￼￼ Media Exposure: old version (now loose it): Recommendation: Media discourage kids under age 2—stage of sensor motor, brain develop best with the interacting with people/ real world, also do not learn well on flat screen; kids, 2 years up to teenagers, should limit less 2 hours; should have TV in child room: reasons 1, TV light disturb sleep 2. Less to monitor - 90% of children younger than 2 years watch some form of electronic media * 1-2 hours per day on average: because, lots of products target this age kids and lots of devices - 900: Hours per year the average child in the US spends in school (TV only) - 1500: Hours per year the average child in the US spends watching TV Age 12 is highest - 1/3 of children younger than 8 have a TV in their bedroom - 2/3 of children 8 and older have a TV in their bedroom - Recommendation really was not followed - From the chart: from kids 818; huge increasing expose into social media in recent years: more options Media Literacy: understand how these form of media works; influence how children perceive and understand how they’re watching; age 2 kids don’t understand!! - Media literacy: the ability to understand how information is conveyed through media and to interpret this information properly; age 8 is a line; younger than age 8 children don’t have high level of media literacy; up 8 they do; gradually develop * Characters: under 8, kids believe fictions characters are real; older 8 can distinguish script and real event; real people or fake * Story lines: younger 8 have trouble to follow story line; their memory works, but don’t piece together make a story; older 8 can follow line and recall very well; younger 8 kids expose to the story including antisocial behaviors parts, if they remember them and cannot follow the line to the moral part, may be future aggressive and conduct antisocial behaviors, reinforce negative behavior; usually 10 age kids can follow line * Production features: spilt scenes, screen shift and changes places/cameras can confuse children younger age 8 * Video—ipad/magazine one year old girl - Commercials: * Commercial literacy; before age 8 kids don’t distinguish the commercials and TV shows, they thought it’s a part of show; most commercials targeting kids are foods and tools * Brand recognition: young kids recognize brands logo rapidly; average kindergarten (age 5) kids can recognize 300 brands logo; marketer invest advertisement and try to let kids be familiar with the name and kids are inclined to buy familiar things; also kids know the ad and said to parents, may influence parents’ decision. Positive Impacts on Development - Education: help preschool kids ready to school; effective at around age 3; - Prosocial behavior: teach positive social behaviors; stronger correlation between positive TV shows and prosocial behavior and the correlation is strong the correlation between aggressive TV shows and aggressive behaviors; because, it’s encouraging and accepted; aggressive behavior could be stopped by parents; have more opportunity to behavior prosocially; children could learn the awarded consequences of prosocial behavior; mostly TV shows aggressive elements; kids before age 8 may not learn the aggressive behaviors Negative Impacts on Development - Health: being sedentary when using the devices; also can learn positive message * Risky behaviors: sexual activity; drug abuse; drunk; plastic surgery; see and imitate the risky behaviors and don’t learn the consequence/dangerous * Overweight/obesity: foods ad targeting to kids are most drunk food, kids feel should eat this * Eating disorders: perceiving ideal body from media, try to imitate that - Attention: TV, recent research: watching the show scene changing rapidly affect attention system development; affect synapse forming, make kids have attention issue; they cannot pay attention on the slow pacing classes * Electric Company: target to educate kids, quick pacing Lolly Knock Knock Rock Current * Word Girl - ￼￼￼￼ ggression—violence * Television violence: correlation: directionality issue; experiment: kids keep watching violent TV show all the time, are more likely lead to aggressive behaviors; in both correlational and experimental research Prevalence of Violence o Number of murders seen on TV by the time the average child in the US finishes elementary school = 8,000 o Number of violent acts seen on TV by age 18 = 200,000 o Cartoons: horrible—Tom and Jerry; emulate o Movies o Programs - Desensitization: Gradual reduction in response to a stimulus due to repeated exposure: when you see violence on TV over and over again, and you emotional response less; get used to the violence; keep attention on speeding up, desensitization happened Attachment: • Children need to form emotional connections with others to develop normally. T • The Strange Situation assessment can be used to determine attachment quality in children of all ages. F • Children with resistant attachments to their mother tend to stay close to her during the Strange Situation assessment. T • Avoidant is the most common attachment classification for children who are abused. F ￼ Parenting: • In terms of positive child outcomes, parental warmth is more important that parental control. F • Authoritative parenting is the most effective parenting style overall. T • Children of authoritarian parents show the highest levels of self- reliance. F • Physical punishment is illegal in some countries. T Play: • Play has cognitive benefits for children. T • Associative play is the most socially advanced type of play seen in preschoolers. F • For most adolescents, the strongest peer pressures are positive. T • The most common peer acceptance category is “average”. T Prosocial • Children at the pre conventional level of moral development base their moral judgments on the perceived consequences of their behaviors. T • Compared to the rest of the world, prosocial behavior is very common in the US. F • All types of aggression are more common in boys. F • Relational aggression is seen in preschoolers. T • Bullies typically have low self-esteem. F Media • Children spend more time watching TV per year than they spend in school. T • Children start to recognize brand logos around age 5 years. F • Prosocial television programs promote prosocial behavior to a greater extent than violent television programs promote aggressive behavior. T • The link between viewing violence and aggressive behavior has been demonstrated in correlational studies but not in experimental studies. F